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Jinyuan Xin, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, Tianxue Wen, Yinghong Wang, Xingru Li, Yang Sun, Jie Sun, Pucai Wang, Gehui Wang, Xinming Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tao Song, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, Guiqian Tang, Wenkang Gao, Yuhong Guo, Hongyan Miao, Shili Tian, and Lu Wang

. Atmos. Environ. , 45 , 2473 – 2479 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.02.045 . Wang , Y. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Seasonal variations in aerosol optical properties over China . J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , D18209 , doi: 10.1029/2010JD015376 . Xia , X. , Z. Li , P. Wang , H. Chen , and M. Cribb , 2007 , Estimation of aerosol effects on surface irradiance based on measurements and radiative transfer model simulations in northern China . J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , D22S10 , doi: 10

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Martin P. King, Ivana Herceg-Bulić, Ileana Bladé, Javier García-Serrano, Noel Keenlyside, Fred Kucharski, Camille Li, and Stefan Sobolowski

.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124021 . 10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124021 Scaife , A. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Skillful long-range of European and North American winters . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 41 , 2514 – 2519 , . 10.1002/2014GL059637 Scaife , A. , and Coauthors , 2017 : Predictability of European winter 2015/2016 . Atmos. Sci. Lett. , 18 , 38 – 44 , . 10.1002/asl.721 Shaman , J. , 2014 : The seasonal effects of ENSO on atmospheric conditions

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Jerry D. Hill and Gerald J. Mulvey

that is based on their own meteorological analysis. However, care must be taken to avoid dissemination of such advice to a threatened community when the forecast may be at variance with government warnings and advisories prepared for the public sector. Weather Analysis and Forecasting [2007]. The AMS has outlined the expected skill in forecasting weather for periods ranging from 12 hours out to 8–14 days. Extended and seasonal outlooks are also discussed. The statement acknowledges the relative

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Vasubandhu Misra, Tracy Irani, Lisette Staal, Kevin Morris, Tirusew Asefa, Chris Martinez, and Wendy Graham

, evapotranspiration increases with temperature. Therefore, the impact of increasing temperature from climate change can have significant impact in the hydrologic water balance and water availability for public supply in Florida. Prior to the inception of Florida Water and Climate Alliance (FloridaWCA), survey results in the tri-state region of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida indicated a significant lack of use and awareness of seasonal climate and drought forecast information by water resource managers ( Bolson et

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A. V. S. Chaitanya, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, V. V. Gopalakrishna, F. Durand, C. Kranthikumar, S. Amritash, V. Suneel, F. Papa, and M. Ravichandran

Measurements of salinity by fishermen in knee-deep water reveal a seasonal “river in the sea” flowing along the eastern coast of India The Indian Ocean is the only tropical ocean that is entirely bounded by a landmass to the north. In boreal summer, this unique geographical setting allows for a large differential heating between the Asian subcontinent and the ocean to the south that drives the most dramatic monsoonal wind system in the world. The southwest monsoon roughly lasts from June to

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P. Tchipalanga, M. Dengler, P. Brandt, R. Kopte, M. Macuéria, P. Coelho, M. Ostrowski, and N. S. Keenlyside

The seasonal circulation and interannual hydrographic variability off the coast of Angola is revealed by biannual research cruise data (1995–2017) from the Nansen Programme. Angola is located at the Atlantic coast in southwestern Africa between 5° and 17°20ʹS, with borders to the Democratic Republic of Congo in the north and to Namibia in the south. Its coastline stretches over a distance of 1,600 km. The Angolan territorial waters support a highly productive ecosystem. Seasonal upwelling

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G. Bala and Akhilesh Gupta

stratosphere to form sulfate aerosols and deflect about 1%–2% of the incoming solar radiation. Climate modeling studies have consistently confirmed that solar geoengineering can markedly diminish regional and seasonal climate change from anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. Lowering of temperature by geoengineering would reduce some of the worst effects of climate warming such as sea level rise and the increase in heat waves and extreme rainfall events. While solar geoengineering schemes such as sulfate aerosol

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Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, and Martha Shulski

—these are some of the weather effects currently observed in the central United States that might well have their origin in the rapidly warming Arctic. These and other implications of Arctic warming were among the topics discussed at a fall 2015 workshop, Implications of a Changing Arctic on Water Resources and Agriculture in the Central U.S ( Wilhite and Morrow 2016 ). The United States assumed chairmanship of the Arctic Council in April 2015, making the workshop topic timely. Given the importance of

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Linda O. Mearns, Melissa S. Bukovsky, Ruby Leung, Yun Qian, Ray Arritt, William Gutowski, Eugene S. Takle, Sébastien Biner, Daniel Caya, James Correia Jr., Richard Jones, Lisa Sloan, and Mark Snyder

differential credibility (see, e.g., Pan et al. 2001 ) and perhaps weights of the various simulations, which may be used in creating probability distributions of temperature and precipitation on a seasonal basis. Such products are useful in some impacts contexts, such as water resources. We do argue, however, that regional climate models can provide useful information about climate change as long as there is some value in the large-scale information provided by the multimodel GCM ensembles. This statement

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Michael J. McPhaden, Axel Timmermann, Matthew J. Widlansky, Magdalena A. Balmaseda, and Timothy N. Stockdale

initial conditions (as in Fig. 7 ). The forecast ensemble mean and spread take into account the predictable signal from ocean initial conditions as well as the unpredictable, chaotic elements of the climate system. Multimodel ensembles like DEMETER, composed of forecasts from independent models, can further enhance forecast skill by diluting the effects of model systematic errors from poorly performing models ( Palmer et al. 2004 ). Nonetheless, for all the advances in seasonal forecasting over the

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