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Warren Helgason and John Pomeroy

and Gray 1997 ; Sauer et al. 1998 ; Pomeroy and Essery 1999 ; Hayashi et al. 2005 ; Pomeroy et al. 2006 ; Marks et al. 2008 ; Reba et al. 2009 ). Unfortunately, since the internal energy is rarely measured directly, there are no published measurements of the energy balance closure over snow-covered land; the degree of which can be a good indicator of the uncertainty in the measurements, and should be considered relative to the expectations of certain parameterizations that were derived from

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Seungmok Paik and Seung-Ki Min

1. Introduction The observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases has been identified as a major cause of the global and continental-scale surface warming during past decades ( Hegerl et al. 2007 ; Bindoff et al. 2013 ). The Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical land has experienced strong warming and the NH spring snow-cover extent (SCE) has decreased accordingly ( Brown and Robinson 2011 ; Brutel-Vuilmet et al. 2013 ; Hori et al. 2017 ; Bormann et al. 2018 ; Meredith et al. 2019

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Xin Qu and Alex Hall

1. Introduction Snow-albedo feedback (SAF) enhances Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical climate sensitivity in climate change simulations ( Budyko 1969 ; Sellers 1969 ; Schneider and Dickinson 1974 ; Robock 1983 ; Cess et al. 1991 ; Randall et al. 1994 ; Hall 2004 ) because of two changes in the snowpack as surface air temperature ( T s ) increases ( Robock 1985 ). First snow cover shrinks, and where it does it generally reveals a land surface that is much less reflective of solar

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V. Khan, L. Holko, K. Rubinstein, and M. Breiling

1. Introduction Snow is a very important component for the predictability of weather and climate and for the hydrological cycle. Modeling and empirical studies of the effect of snow cover revealed the influence of snow cover on atmospheric circulation patterns (e.g., Clark et al. 1999 ; Clark and Serreze 2000 ). Despite significant efforts (e.g., Groisman et al. 1994 ; Fallot et al. 1997 ; Cohen and Entekhabi 1999 ; Hall and Qu 2006 ), the understanding of the influence of snow cover on

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Anne W. Nolin and Christopher Daly

1. Introduction One of the most visible and widely felt impacts of climate warming is the change (mostly loss) of low-elevation snow cover in the midlatitudes. Temperature trends in the northwestern United States show a warming of 1°–2°C since the middle of the last century and related declines in snow cover ( Karl et al. 1993 ; Lettenmaier et al. 1994 ). Changes in snow cover are particularly pronounced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Using measurements of 1 April snow

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Steven B. Malevich and Katherine Klink

and climatological aspects of this phenomenon. The majority of urban climate research has been conducted in cities with warm-to-moderate climates (e.g., Yow 2007 ). There have been fewer investigations of UHIs in cities with significant seasonal temperature variation and/or seasonal snow cover [exceptions include Minneapolis, Minnesota ( Todhunter 1996 ; Winkler et al. 1981 ); Barrow, Alaska ( Hinkel et al. 2003 ); Lódź, Poland ( Offerle et al. 2006 ); and Hamburg, Germany ( Schlünzen et al

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Niilo Siljamo, Otto Hyvärinen, Aku Riihelä, and Markku Suomalainen

models and forecasting. Current remote sensing satellites used for snow detection are either in polar or geostationary orbits, which have their advantages and disadvantages. Most of the seasonal snow is in high latitudes, which are poorly covered by geostationary satellites. Whereas instruments aboard geostationary satellites provide excellent temporal resolution, polar satellite instruments have a better spatial resolution and a better polar coverage, making them often a better option in snow

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Christian Plüss and Atsumu Ohmura

Introduction In most environments where a seasonal snow cover is present, the radiation balance is the dominant energy source for snowmelt (e.g., Male and Granger 1981 ; Ohmura 1982 ; Aguado 1985 ). Unlike the snow cover in plains, alpine snow fields receive radiation not only from the sky, but also from reflection and emission of the surrounding topography. Hence, in complex alpine topography, the radiation balance at a snow surface may be written as NR = ( I s + D s + D t )(1 − α

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Glen E. Liston and Christopher A. Hiemstra

isolated landscapes of intensive study. More frequently, snow-cover data (mostly satellite visible data) are used to identify changes in the arrival and longevity of terrestrial snow ( Frei and Robinson 1999 ; Serreze et al. 2000 ; Dye 2002 ; Stone et al. 2002 ; Brown et al. 2007 ; Brown and Mote 2009 ; Zhao and Fernandes 2009 ; Brown et al. 2010 ; Choi et al. 2010 ). With terrestrial snow, the presence or absence frequently serves as a surrogate measure of snow and cryosphere change, since

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Xia Feng, Alok Sahoo, Kristi Arsenault, Paul Houser, Yan Luo, and Tara J. Troy

1. Introduction Snow cover plays an important role in climate because of its high albedo, low thermal conductivity, roughness length, and ability to store water. The accurate parameterization of snow cover feedbacks within the climate system is essential for accurate prediction using general circulation models (GCMs; Yeh et al. 1983 ; Marshall et al. 1994 ). During the past couple of decades, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of snow model parameterization schemes

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