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Matthew D. Shupe, Jennifer M. Comstock, David D. Turner, and Gerald G. Mace

critical step in bridging the gap between basic measurements and model improvement. They provide input to observational and modeling process studies that are used to synthesize and generalize cloud knowledge in order to support model parameterization development. Here we provide an historical overview of ARM’s contributions toward cloud property retrievals. The overview covers advances in using specific passive and active instruments that are in operation at ARM sites and the expansion of multisensor

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

was provided by van Everdingen (1925) . van Everdingen was the director of the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and a pioneer in collection of upper-air observations with kites. He studied the Borculo tornado in the Netherlands in 1925 and his work covered three aspects that foreshadowed future research. He carried out a detailed damage survey in Borculo. He went back through the Dutch archives of possibly tornadic events and occurrence of thunderstorms for the previous four decades to

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

precipitation measurements with better sampling (3-hourly over a specific location), higher accuracy (with a Ku-Ka band radar), finer spatial resolution (up to 0.1° × 0.1°), and greater coverage (from the tropics to high latitudes) relative to TRMM. LH is dominated by phase changes between water vapor and small liquid or frozen cloud-sized particles. It consists of the condensation of cloud droplets; evaporation of cloud droplets and raindrops; freezing of cloud droplets and raindrops; melting of ice, snow

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David A. Randall, Anthony D. Del Genio, Leo J. Donner, William D. Collins, and Stephen A. Klein

Trenberth 1997 ). ARM also has improved radiation transfer under cloudy-sky conditions. At the beginning of the ARM era, the optical properties of liquid water clouds were well described by Mie theory with suitable parameterizations thereof (e.g., Slingo 1989 ), but radiation transfer through ice clouds [which cover about 19% of the planet ( Chen et al. 2000 ; Hartmann et al. 1992 )] posed a serious challenge, since no theory of radiation–particle interactions addressed the complex geometry of

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E. J. Mlawer and D. D. Turner

two downlooking Multifilter Radiometers (MFRs) at the SGP site (mounted on the 10- and 25-m towers) are used with the corresponding measurement of total irradiance from the uplooking Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) to obtain surface albedo values in the five MFR/MFRSR channels. Based upon observed spectral surface reflectances in the Bowker et al. (1985) atlas, the surface albedo values are used to identify a surface type under each tower as snow-covered, green vegetation

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D. Baumgardner, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, R. Cotton, J. Crosier, P. Field, C. Gurganus, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, P. Lawson, G. McFarquhar, Z. Ulanowski, and J. Um

for the single-particle spectrometers. Some of these have been generally accepted by the cloud measurement community while others remain under investigation and discussion. These correction procedures are the topic of McFarquhar et al. (2017 , chapter 11). 5) Impact of uncertainties on combined sensor measurements To cover the full size range of cloud ice particles, it is necessary to combine measurements from the single-particle light-scattering and imaging spectrometers. Although these measure

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

Fritsch 1997 ) showed where MCCs identified in this way occur around the world. However, we now know that MCCs are an extreme form of mesoscale convection. Many deep convective systems bearing a large amount of precipitation and high-impact weather have horizontal scales in which precipitation covers areas ~100–500 km in horizontal scale without satisfying the strong cold cloud-top criteria of Maddox (1980) , and the term MCS is commonly used (including in this review) to encompass this broader

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

from a simple slab ocean response to NAO forcing. On the other hand, the collective modeling and observational evidence suggests the atmospheric response to the AMOC-generated SST anomalies does not directly project back onto the AMOC ( Hodson et al. 2010 ; Sun et al. 2015 ; Wills et al. 2019b ). 7. Seasonal to interannual predictability The presence of slowly evolving variations at the surface of Earth (e.g., sea surface temperature, soil moisture, snow cover, and sea ice) is the scientific

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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

water vapor in air at the dewpoint would be the same as the absolute vapor pressure measured in the laboratory at the same temperature ( Dalton 1802 , 1805 ; Lawrence 2005 ; Oliver and Oliver 2003 ). During the 1800s the wet-and-dry-bulb thermometer method was developed to determine atmospheric humidity ( Gatley 2004 ). The method uses two thermometers, one dry and one covered by an absorbent material such as muslin or cotton kept wet using distilled water. Evaporation of water from the wet

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

electromagnetic radiation from the sun varies with the 11-yr solar cycle (SC) so that the sun emits more radiation at sunspot maximum when, paradoxically, it is most covered with dark sunspots. A review paper by Gray et al. (2010) provides an overview of solar variability, observational evidence for solar variability affecting the climate, mechanisms for solar impacts on the climate, and advances in climate modeling of solar influences. Herschel (1801) documented changes in features at the sun’s surface

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