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Ashley A. Anderson, Teresa A. Myers, Edward W. Maibach, Heidi Cullen, Jim Gandy, Joe Witte, Neil Stenhouse, and Anthony Leiserowitz

accompanying graphics) addressing the causes and local impacts of global warming, such as sea level rise on the coast of South Carolina, the increased risk of drought in a warmer world, and intensity of hurricanes (for examples of the segments, see http://www.wltx.com/weather/climate/default.aspx ). These segments were developed for the weather forecast during the evening news, when local weather conditions created a relevant opportunity. A quasi-experimental evaluation of the first year of Climate

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George Maier, Andrew Grundstein, Woncheol Jang, Chao Li, Luke P. Naeher, and Marshall Shepherd

, factor 4 < 1 SD above the mean, factor 5 = 1–2 SD above the mean, and factor 6 ≥2 SD above the mean. A value of 1 represents the least vulnerable score for that factor in the respective county, while a value of 6 represents the highest value of vulnerability. Because there is no detailed understanding of the impact of each factor on vulnerability, all factors were weighted equally when summing them for the final vulnerability score ( Reid et al. 2009 ). The three factor scores are combined to assign

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Alan W. Black, Gabriele Villarini, and Thomas L. Mote

and societal impact of motor vehicle crashes, 2010 (revised). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Rep. DOT HS 812 013, 304 pp. [Available online at https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812013 .] Brijs, T. , Karlis D. , and Wets G. , 2008 : Studying the effect of weather conditions on daily crash counts using a discrete time-series model . Accid. Anal. Prev. , 40 , 1180 – 1190 , doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.01.001 . Brodsky, H. , and Hakkert A. S. , 1988

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Catherine Vaughan, Suraje Dessai, and Chris Hewitt

designed to best deliver societal benefits. Questions regarding the kinds of information on which climate services should be based, the sorts of problems they can most effectively address, and the institutional arrangements needed to support them continue to consume planning efforts, as the users and providers of climate services engage in a simultaneous and loosely coordinated process of learning by doing. Some aspects have been more studied than others. Indeed, relatively more attention has been paid

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Kerry Emanuel, Fabian Fondriest, and James Kossin

lowering the firm’s rating. Fig . 3. Annual premium vs annual retention. Fig . 4. Probability of ruin after 100 yr as a function of annual premium. e. Baseline operating strategy We run a 1000-member ensemble of 100-yr time series of Atlantic hurricanes and tally the losses and gains to the primary insurer for each ensemble member resulting from hurricane impacts on each of the 100 zones shown in Fig. 1 , using the fractional damage function given by Eq. (1) . In tallying the variables that control

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

areas, and 4) documenting the microphysical chain of events following seeding to determine whether it was consistent with the hypothesis and if it impacts the water supply. Studies of supercooled water over many mountain ranges have produced consistent results, showing that SLW is most often found in clouds: 1) along and over steep mountain slopes; 2) in embedded convection, when it exists; 3) in more laminar orographic clouds where cloud-top temperatures are greater than −15°C; 4) at cloud top

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Kevin M. Simmons and Daniel Sutter

recent local FAR in assessing warning credibility, and construct multiple FARs based on different geographies and time horizons. We then include the FAR variable in a regression analysis of tornado casualties. We do not examine the link between false alarms and warning response directly, but since warning response affects casualties and our 19 yr of data include over 21 000 state tornado segments, we seek to detect an impact on response through casualties. We find a strong relationship between the

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Paul A. T. Higgins and Jonah V. Steinbuck

biological systems respond), and social sciences (e.g., how effectively humanity can adapt to and cope with impacts). Furthermore, subjective views and value judgments heavily influence how individuals perceive both the risks of climate change and the potential benefits and costs of risk management options ( Leiserowitz et al. 2011a , b ). A wide range of modeling approaches is currently used to explore the societal consequences of climate change, each of which contributes significantly to our assessment

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Peter N. Peregrine

, one of which seemed promising to me: “different scales of impact (i.e., societal wide versus community) may also require different strategies of resilience” ( Peregrine 2018a , p. 156). Thus I suggest that societal tightness may be associated with resilience to localized disasters in which neighbors are often first responders and are a vital source of support following the disaster whereas corporate orientation may be more associated with resilience to catastrophic disasters. I develop this idea

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Rebecca Bendick, Kyla M. Dahlin, Brian V. Smoliak, Lori Kumler, Sierra J. Jones, Athena Aktipis, Ezekiel Fugate, Rachel Hertog, Claus Moberg, and Dane Scott

emissions at 2004 levels. These consist of 15 different strategies, each of which would reduce CO 2 emissions by 1 GtC yr −1 in 50 yr. Although each of these wedge strategies would have the same impact on the global emissions budget, they differ substantially in technological complexity and feasibility, economic costs, societal impacts, and ecological effects. Choosing which strategies to implement, when to implement them, in what order, or even how much to invest in their implementation requires

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