Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 17,156 items for :

  • All content x
Clear All
C. T. Gordon, L. Umscheid Jr., and K. Miyakoda

1064 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoLmm29Simulation Experiments for Determining Wind Data Requirements in the Tropics C. T. GORDON, L. U~rscm~m, Jm., Am) K. MIYAKODAGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, N. Y. 08540(Manuscript received 2 February 1972, in revised form 28 April 1972)ABSTRACT Numerical simulation experiments are performed with a 9-1evel global

Full access

IMay 1966J. Vederman, G. H. Hirata, and E. J. Manning337FORECASTING IN THE TROPICS WITH A BAROTROPIC ATMOSPHERIC MODELJOSEPH VEDERMAN, GEORGE H. HIRATA, AND EDMUND J. MANNINGESSA, Weather Bureau, Honolulu, HawaiiABSTRACTA series of barotropic forecasts has been prepared for several upper-air levels in the tropical Pacific. Thegoverning equation is the vorticity equation for a harotropic non-divergent ntrnosphere. The input dah are st8ream-function values derived from an objective tropical wind

Full access
William J. Randel, Rolando Garcia, and Fei Wu

1. Introduction The general circulation of the stratosphere is characterized by a global overturning circulation with upwelling in the tropics and poleward–downward flow in the extratropics. This so-called Brewer–Dobson circulation was postulated based on observations of stratospheric water vapor ( Brewer 1949 ) and ozone ( Dobson 1956 ) and later confirmed from calculations of diabatic circulations in the stratosphere (e.g., Murgatroyd and Singleton 1961 ; Gille et al. 1987 ). This

Full access
Sang-Ki Lee, Chunzai Wang, and Brian E. Mapes

Rossby wave that forms to the northwest and southwest of the heat source. These damped baroclinic Kelvin and Rossby waves depicted by the Matsuno–Gill model are the cornerstones for our understanding of heat-induced atmospheric circulations in the tropics. However, the Matuno–Gill model completely fails outside of the tropics. As demonstrated by Hoskins and Karoly (1981) and by Horel and Wallace (1981) , a diabatic heating anomaly associated with El Niño can also excite a stationary barotropic

Full access
Mihai Dima, Norel Rimbu, Sabina Stefan, and Ioana Dima

structure was questioned in some studies ( Houghton and Tourre 1992 ). It appears that a positive feedback of wind speed, evaporation, and SST play an important role in the Tropics.Semi-empirical ( Chang et al. 1996 ) and dynamic ocean–atmosphere models ( Xie 1998 ), which include this feedback, reproduced the decadal oscillation of the tropical dipole. Deser and Blackmon (1993) presented evidence for a quasi-decadal cycle in the North Atlantic. The structure of the SST field is characterized by

Full access
Chidong Zhang

OCTOBER 1993 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 1987NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEOn the Annual Cycle in Highest, Coldest Clouds in the Tropics*CHIDONG ZHANG**Department of Atmospheric Sciences and Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington27 May 1992 and 26 March 1993ABSTRACT High-resolution satellite observations are used to examine the annual

Full access
James C. McWilliams and Gokhan Danabasoglu

1. Introduction The upper tropical oceans comprise the core of the global Warm Water Sphere ( Wüst 1949 ). The Tropics are strongly stably stratified in potential density ( Fig. 1a ), due primarily to the dominance of solar heating. A secondary influence on the stratification is the freshwater fluxes: evaporation exceeds precipitation away from the equator toward the Subtropics, but this is reversed by heavy precipitation nearer the equator. The strongest tropical currents are zonally oriented

Full access
Masao Kanamitsu, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Colin Depradine

698 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoLu~.29On Scale Interactions in the Tropics During Northern SummerMASAO KANAMITSU,l T. N. KRIStINAMURTIl AND COLIN DEPRADINEDept. of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306(Manuscript received 25 August 1971, in revised form 14 January 1972) ABSTRACT Results of computations of energy exchanges between waves and waves and between

Full access
Zhuo Wang, C-P. Chang, Bin Wang, and Fei-Fei Jin

location of the tropical forcing. An equatorial heating may directly excite equatorially trapped baroclinic Rossby waves but is inefficient in exciting barotropic-type responses directly. Lim and Chang (1986) found that vertical shear, differential damping, and the planetary boundary layer enable an energy transfer from the heating-forced baroclinic waves to deep barotropic modes, which allows a teleconnection between the Tropics and the extratropics. Using a two-level model, Wang and Xie (1996

Full access


II. Variation of the Tropospheric Mean Structure With Season and Differences Between Hemispheres


transports and in the mean meridional circulation.The model indicates how the annual oscillation of temperature in t,he equatorial lower stratosphere, with lowesttemperatures in January, derives from the difference between the upward branches of the July and t.he January winterhemisphere Hadlep cell. The semiannual oscillation in winds and temperatures in the Tropics is largely accounted forby the model in terms of the longitudinally averaged tropical rain belt migrating between summer hemispheres.1

Full access