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Shira Rubin, Baruch Ziv, and Nathan Paldor

1. Introduction This paper describes the features of tropical plumes (TPs) that extend from the Tropics poleward and eastward, over the eastern part of North Africa to the eastern Mediterranean. McGuirk et al. (1987 , 1988 ) were the first to present an objective definition of a TP: “continuous cloud band, at least 2000 km in length, crossing 15°N” and also coined the term “tropical plume.” The intersection of the TP with the ITCZ is usually called the “origin point” ( McGuirk et al. 1987

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Stefan N. Tulich and Brian E. Mapes

. E. Yuter , C. S. Bretherton , and G. N. Kiladis , 2004 : Large-scale meteorology and deep convection during TRMM KWAJEX. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 422 – 444 . Teixeira , J. , and C. A. Reynolds , 2008 : Stochastic nature of physical parameterizations in ensemble prediction: A stochastic convection approach. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 483 – 496 . Tulich , S. N. , and B. E. Mapes , 2008 : Multiscale convective wave disturbances in the tropics: Insights from a two

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JOSEPH VEDERMAN, GEORGE H. HIRATA, and EDMUND J. MANNING

IMay 1966J. Vederman, G. H. Hirata, and E. J. Manning337FORECASTING IN THE TROPICS WITH A BAROTROPIC ATMOSPHERIC MODELJOSEPH VEDERMAN, GEORGE H. HIRATA, AND EDMUND J. MANNINGESSA, Weather Bureau, Honolulu, HawaiiABSTRACTA series of barotropic forecasts has been prepared for several upper-air levels in the tropical Pacific. Thegoverning equation is the vorticity equation for a harotropic non-divergent ntrnosphere. The input dah are st8ream-function values derived from an objective tropical wind

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William J. Randel, Rolando Garcia, and Fei Wu

1. Introduction The general circulation of the stratosphere is characterized by a global overturning circulation with upwelling in the tropics and poleward–downward flow in the extratropics. This so-called Brewer–Dobson circulation was postulated based on observations of stratospheric water vapor ( Brewer 1949 ) and ozone ( Dobson 1956 ) and later confirmed from calculations of diabatic circulations in the stratosphere (e.g., Murgatroyd and Singleton 1961 ; Gille et al. 1987 ). This

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Mihai Dima, Norel Rimbu, Sabina Stefan, and Ioana Dima

structure was questioned in some studies ( Houghton and Tourre 1992 ). It appears that a positive feedback of wind speed, evaporation, and SST play an important role in the Tropics.Semi-empirical ( Chang et al. 1996 ) and dynamic ocean–atmosphere models ( Xie 1998 ), which include this feedback, reproduced the decadal oscillation of the tropical dipole. Deser and Blackmon (1993) presented evidence for a quasi-decadal cycle in the North Atlantic. The structure of the SST field is characterized by

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Chidong Zhang

OCTOBER 1993 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 1987NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEOn the Annual Cycle in Highest, Coldest Clouds in the Tropics*CHIDONG ZHANG**Department of Atmospheric Sciences and Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington27 May 1992 and 26 March 1993ABSTRACT High-resolution satellite observations are used to examine the annual

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James C. McWilliams and Gokhan Danabasoglu

1. Introduction The upper tropical oceans comprise the core of the global Warm Water Sphere ( Wüst 1949 ). The Tropics are strongly stably stratified in potential density ( Fig. 1a ), due primarily to the dominance of solar heating. A secondary influence on the stratification is the freshwater fluxes: evaporation exceeds precipitation away from the equator toward the Subtropics, but this is reversed by heavy precipitation nearer the equator. The strongest tropical currents are zonally oriented

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Sang-Ki Lee, Chunzai Wang, and Brian E. Mapes

Rossby wave that forms to the northwest and southwest of the heat source. These damped baroclinic Kelvin and Rossby waves depicted by the Matsuno–Gill model are the cornerstones for our understanding of heat-induced atmospheric circulations in the tropics. However, the Matuno–Gill model completely fails outside of the tropics. As demonstrated by Hoskins and Karoly (1981) and by Horel and Wallace (1981) , a diabatic heating anomaly associated with El Niño can also excite a stationary barotropic

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Masao Kanamitsu, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Colin Depradine

698 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoLu~.29On Scale Interactions in the Tropics During Northern SummerMASAO KANAMITSU,l T. N. KRIStINAMURTIl AND COLIN DEPRADINEDept. of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306(Manuscript received 25 August 1971, in revised form 14 January 1972) ABSTRACT Results of computations of energy exchanges between waves and waves and between

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Zhuo Wang, C-P. Chang, Bin Wang, and Fei-Fei Jin

location of the tropical forcing. An equatorial heating may directly excite equatorially trapped baroclinic Rossby waves but is inefficient in exciting barotropic-type responses directly. Lim and Chang (1986) found that vertical shear, differential damping, and the planetary boundary layer enable an energy transfer from the heating-forced baroclinic waves to deep barotropic modes, which allows a teleconnection between the Tropics and the extratropics. Using a two-level model, Wang and Xie (1996

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