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Max Popp, Hauke Schmidt, and Jochem Marotzke

about detrained water to the cloud-microphysical scheme, cloud condensate is created or destroyed by the cloud microphysical scheme only. 3) Convection ECHAM6 uses a mass flux scheme for cumulus convection ( Tiedtke 1989 ), with modifications for penetrative convection according to Nordeng (1994) . The contribution of cumulus convection to the large-scale budgets of heat, moisture, and momentum is represented by an ensemble of clouds consisting of updrafts and downdrafts in a steady state

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Brian E. J. Rose and David Ferreira

is driven by a dynamical moistening and redistribution of water vapor. OHT weakens the Hadley circulation, allowing moist convection to spread out of the deep tropics into its flanks, which moistens the subtropical troposphere and allows for increased greenhouse trapping. In the low latitudes, the oceanic redistribution of heat is felt through a deep tropospheric layer by means of moist convection, with important consequences for the radiative budget. In the more stably stratified midlatitudes

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Ryan C. Sullivan, V. Rao Kotamarthi, and Yan Feng

shown in Figs. S1–S3 . The poor performance of CMIP5 ET is particularly evident in the annual cumulative ET. Annual ET is drastically overestimated by 63%, 68%–73%, and 38%–39% for GFDL, GISS, and MIROC, respectively, relative to the in situ measurements (although these are subject to nontrivial uncertainties themselves). This substantial bias has significant implications for water budget analyses and may lead to poorly represented land–atmosphere feedbacks that can impede the performance of

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Noah S. Brauer, Jeffrey B. Basara, Cameron R. Homeyer, Greg M. McFarquhar, and Pierre E. Kirstetter

DP extending above the 0°C level. The Z DR columns indicate convective updrafts lofting supercooled drops above the melting layer in continental convection (e.g., Herzegh and Jameson 1992 ; Loney et al. 2002 ; Kumjian et al. 2014 ). Van Lier-Walqui et al. (2016) show that K DP columns can be translated to water-coated ice or supercooled liquid being lofted above the 0°C isotherm as well. A critical component of hydrometeorology that has not yet been explored is the relationship between

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Yu-shu Zhou, Ze-ming Xie, and Xin Liu

-record-breaking heavy rainfall event occurred in the Korla area on 4 June 2012. Floods, landslides, and debris flows caused by torrential rainfall often lead to severe losses of life and property damage and thus have a great impact on the national economy and people’s livelihoods in Xinjiang. Persistent water vapor transport is a necessary condition for the development of torrential rainfall systems ( Gustafsson et al. 2010 ), making the study of water vapor transport and sources for heavy rains important ( Newell

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Rodrigo Fernandez and Nicolas Zegre

). The water balance describes the process by which water is partitioned across the landscape. According to water balance, the input volume from P is partitioned into evapotranspiration, runoff, and storage ( Black 1997 ; Milly 1994 ). From the concept of water balance, water available is the remnant of precipitation in the land surface after evapotranspiration has taken place. Evapotranspiration is dependent on the availability of water and the atmospheric water demand ( Budyko 1974 ; Roderick

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Gregory J. McCabe, David M. Wolock, Connie A. Woodhouse, Gregory T. Pederson, Stephanie A. McAfee, Stephen Gray, and Adam Csank

balancing act between water for human use and water needed to maintain the health of ecosystems. Recently, Woodhouse et al. (2016) examined the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on UCRB water year (1 October–30 September of the following year) streamflow over the past 100 years. Results indicated that cool season precipitation explained most of the variability in water-year streamflow; however, spring/summer temperatures and, to a lesser extent, antecedent fall soil

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Yi Shi, Zhihong Jiang, Zhengyu Liu, and Laurent Li

Lagrangian transformation of the Eulerian atmospheric moisture budget equation: (3) E − P = ∂ W ∂ t + ∇ ⋅ 1 g ∫ 0 P s q v d p , where W = ( 1 / g ) ∫ 0 P s q d p is the vertically integrated water vapor or precipitable water in the column, g is the gravitational acceleration, v is wind, p is atmospheric pressure, and P s is pressure at the surface. The last term in Eq. (3) represents the divergence of vertically integrated water vapor flux. Stohl and James (2004 , 2005) showed that when

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Michael S. Buban, Temple R. Lee, and C. Bruce Baker

dataset are relatively small compared to the observed USCRN data. To produce a daily gridded soil moisture product it would be instructive to see how the errors in PRISM compare to other components in the water budget (e.g., ET); however, we do not have ET data from the USCRN stations to compare the magnitude of the errors in this product. However, preliminary comparisons of measured USCRN soil moisture to a PRISM input/ALEXI output simple model shows promise. More analyses will be conducted going

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Christopher P. Konrad

annual water balance . Water Resour. Res. , 30 , 2143 – 2156 , https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR00586 . 10.1029/94WR00586 Mock , C. , 1996 : Climatic controls and spatial variations of precipitation in the western United States . J. Climate , 9 , 1111 – 1125 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1111:CCASVO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1111:CCASVO>2.0.CO;2 Mote , P. , A. Hamlet , M. Clark , and D. Lettenmaier , 2005 : Declining mountain snowpack in western North America

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