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Tao Feng, Xiu-Qun Yang, Jia-Yuh Yu, and Ronghui Huang

moist static energy (MSE) budget analyses ( Feng et al. 2020a , hereafter Part II ). Part I is organized as follows: section 2 describes the dataset and methodology, section 3 reveals the detailed precipitation characteristics associated with TD-type disturbances, section 4 reveals the moisture structure of TD-type waves, section 5 presents diabatic heating in association with atmospheric condensation, and section 6 presents the conclusions and discussion. 2. Data and methodology a

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C. G. Justus and Arthur Woodrum

OCTOBF. R1973 C. G. JUSTUS AND ARTHUR WOODRUM 1267Upper Atmospheric Planetary-Wave and Gravity-Wave Observations C. G. JUSTUSSchool of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia -nstitute of Technology, Atlanta 30332ARTHUR WOODRUM&hool of Physics, Georgia Southern College, Statesboro 30458(Manuscript received 16 February 1973, in revised form 7 May 1973)ABSTRACT Previously collected data

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Juliana Dias, Pedro L. Silva Dias, George N. Kiladis, and Maria Gehne

data and the theoretical dry equatorial waves is that the CCEWs spectral peaks imply equivalent heights in the range 12–50 m. This is much shallower than the peak projection response to deep convective heating (e.g., Fulton and Schubert 1985 ), which implies an equivalent height of about 200 m. The concept of equivalent height comes from a vertical modal decomposition of linearized atmospheric motion equations, and depends essentially on the vertical mode and the static stability of the atmosphere

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Christoph W. Schmidt and Robert A. Goler

atmospheric layers with waves at its leading edge ( Simpson 1997 ). Two cases from Clarke (1986) were shown to be produced from thunderstorm outflows, while the remaining five cases were associated with an approaching cold front. Clarke (1986 , p. 74) notes that, as a cold front encounters the stably stratified marine inversion, it may “produce a bore, which in time may become undular, and eventually decay to a train of solitary waves.” Clarke (1986) also indicated the possibility that the cold front

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Joseph Bernstein and Brian Farrell

: The maintenance of low-frequency atmospheric anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci. , 49 , 1924 – 1946 . Branstator , G. , 1995 : Organization of storm track anomalies by recurring low-frequency circulation anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 207 – 226 . Cai , M. , and M. Mak , 1990 : Symbiotic relation between planetary and synoptic-scale waves. J. Atmos. Sci. , 47 , 2953 – 2968 . Carrera , M. L. , R. W. Higgins , and V. Kousky , 2004 : Downstream weather impacts associated with

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Evan Weller, Ming Feng, Harry Hendon, Jian Ma, Shang-Ping Xie, and Nick Caputi

tropical eastern IO, similar to observations ( Figs. 7a,d ), as well as atmospheric Rossby waves that then propagate into the extratropics and over the Australian continent ( Fig. 7 ). Overall, the response in the southern IO displays clear atmospheric wave train structures ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Gill 1982 ; Saji and Yamagata 2003a ; Cai et al. 2011b ) with a strong response over the Australian continent ( Fig. 7 ). The IOD experiment confirms that the positive sea level pressure anomalies

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Alexander Hasha, Oliver Bühler, and John Scinocca

, it has never been clearly established whether horizontal propagation and refraction are, indeed, negligible for atmospheric climate dynamics. This is an interesting question not only for parameterization efforts but also for understanding the dynamics of explicit gravity waves that are increasingly produced and observed in high-resolution GCMs (e.g., Plougonven and Snyder 2005 ). Such explicitly resolved waves may also affect data assimilation procedures. The present study makes a step toward

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Takatoshi Sakazaki

analysis considers large-scale, low-frequency modes: Rossby, Rossby–gravity and Kelvin modes, because they contain a relatively larger energy compared to higher-frequency modes due to the “red” nature of atmospheric variability (e.g., Fig. 2 ) and are more likely to have detectable rainfall signals. We will demonstrate that not only the 5-day wave but other modes have accompanying tropical rainfall variations and that such rainfall signals have a circumglobally traveling nature, as well as localized

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Daisuke Takasuka and Masaki Satoh

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is known to be the most prominent convective disturbances in the tropics. It is characterized by slow eastward propagation of convective envelopes with O (10 3 )-km spatial scale over the Indo-Pacific warm pool sector on an intraseasonal time scale (e.g., Hendon and Salby 1994 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ), and it appears not to be analogous to classical equatorial waves ( Matsuno 1966 ; Takayabu 1994

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T. J. Herron

598 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoLtmE28Group Velodties of Atmospheric Gravity Waves~ T. J. H~I~RONLamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, N. Y., and City College of New York (Manuscript received 5 August 1970, in revised form 12 February 1971) Atmospheric gravity waves generated by low-altltude nuclear explosions have been detected by

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