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Malcolm E. Scully, John H. Trowbridge, and Alexander W. Fisher

1. Introduction Near the ocean’s surface, most field observations of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the presence of surface gravity waves exceed values expected based on rigid boundary layer scaling ( Kitaigorodskii 1983 ; Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Anis and Moum 1995 ; Drennan et al. 1996 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Gemmrich 2010 ). It is traditionally assumed that the elevated rates of dissipation are the result of the convergence in the vertical transport of TKE driven

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Yuki Tanaka and Toshiyuki Hibiya

1. Introduction Tropical instability waves (TIWs) are prominent mesoscale features observed in the eastern to central equatorial Pacific Ocean. They are most distinctly identified as meanders in the sea surface temperature (SST) front just north of the equator and are also seen in terms of temperature, salinity, and velocity fluctuations in the depth range from the sea surface down to the thermocline and in the latitude range from ~5°S to ~10°N ( Legeckis 1977 ; Qiao and Weisberg 1995

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Motoki Nagura, Yukio Masumoto, and Takanori Horii

variability simulated by their model does not compare very well with observations. In this study, we estimate meridional heat transport and heat advection caused by mixed Rossby gravity waves in the Indian Ocean using in situ observations and an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) output. We also discuss associated dynamics, conducting an idealized experiment with a linear continuously stratified model. Based on the consensus that mixed Rossby gravity waves dominate, we can guess their contributions to

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Ravi P. Shukla and James L. Kinter

2015 ); (ii) interactions between the tropics and extratropics expressed, for example, in the dispersion of Rossby waves in response to tropical tropospheric heating ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ); (iii) persistent ocean anomalies in both the tropics (e.g., Alexander 1992 ) and extratropics (e.g., Hartmann 2015 ); and (iv) persistent soil moisture anomalies that alter surface fluxes and atmospheric boundary layer stability (e.g., Koster et al. 2011 ; Guo et al. 2012 ). Considerable research into

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Ali Tamizi and Ian R. Young

Tamizi by the University of Melbourne through a Ph.D. scholarship. The development of the altimeter database was supported by a grant from the Integrated Marine Observing System. REFERENCES Beal , R. C. , T. W. Gerling , D. E. Irvine , F. M. Monaldo , and D. G. Tilley , 1986 : Spatial variations of ocean wave directional spectra from the Seasat synthetic aperture radar . J. Geophys. Res. , 91 , 2433 – 2449 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JC091iC02p02433 . 10.1029/JC091iC02p02433 Black

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Hayley V. Dosser and Luc Rainville

1. Introduction The standard picture of Arctic internal waves derives from observations made during the 1980s and 1990s [e.g., the Arctic Internal Waves Experiment (AIWEX) in spring of 1985 ( Levine et al. 1987 ; D’Asaro and Morehead 1991 ; Merrifield and Pinkel 1996 ) and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Experiment (SHEBA) in 1997 to 1998 ( Pinkel 2005 )], which found a quiescent Arctic Ocean with an internal wave field energy level an order of magnitude or more below that at lower

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Jennifer L. Irish, Jennifer M. Wozencraft, A. Grant Cunningham, and Claudine Giroud

intercomparison of nearshore directional wave sensors. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. , OE-8 , 254 – 271 . Howell, G. L. , 1998 : Shallow water directional wave gages using short baseline arrays. Coastal Eng. , 35 , 85 – 102 . 10.1016/S0378-3839(98)00031-3 Hwang, P. A. , Walsh E. J. , Krabill W. B. , Swift R. N. , Manizade S. S. , Scott J. F. , and Earle M. D. , 1998 : Airborne remote sensing applications to coastal wave research. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 18791 – 18800 . 10.1029/98JC00895

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I. R. Young, A. V. Babanin, and S. Zieger

1. Introduction Ocean swell is typically characterized as waves that have propagated away from their generation region and are no longer receiving active energy input from the local wind. As such, they can be represented by , where is the wind speed measured at a reference height of 10 m, and is the phase speed of the waves. A number of studies ( Barstow 1996 ; Young 1999 ; Chen et al. 2002 ; Gulev et al. 2003 ; Sterl and Caires 2005 ; Gulev and Grigorieva 2006 ; Semedo et al. 2011

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Philip W. Kithil

We appreciate the considerable effort by the authors before, during, and after the Ocean Productivity Perturbation Experiment (OPPEX; White et al. 2010 ) and offer the following comments on the OPPEX project, as well as subsequent development activity resulting directly from the lessons learned: The Atmocean wave pumps supplied for the OPPEX test were custom prototypes, not fully engineered “commercially available wave pumps.” Winding the two sections of 150-m tubes onto the central coupler

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Pieter B. Smit and Tim T. Janssen

1. Introduction Pioneering work in the mid-twentieth century ( Munk and Traylor 1947 ; Barber and Ursell 1948 ; Munk et al. 1963 ; Snodgrass et al. 1966 ) explored the foundations of swell dynamics over large propagation distances in the open ocean, and explained observed narrowing (in frequency and directional space) of the wave spectrum by frequency dispersion and geometric spreading. The evolution of ocean waves over long distances is important for many physical processes, including wave

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