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Klaus Vormoor and Thomas Skaugen

: Estimating the time dependence of air temperature using daily maxima and minima: A comparison of three methods . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 5 , 736 – 742 . Bárdossy, A. , 1998 : Generating precipitation time series using simulated annealing . Water Resour. Res. , 34 , 1737 – 1744 . Beldring, S. , 2003 : Estimation of parameters in a distributed precipitation-runoff model for Norway . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 7 , 304 – 316 . Bergström, S. , 1995 : The HBV model. Computer Models of

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Rui Wang, Xin Yan, Zhenguo Niu, and Wei Chen

most noticeable impact on open water is reflected in water surface temperature ( Yan and Zheng 2015 ). Recent studies have focused on the relationship between ocean surface temperature and global climate change ( Chen et al. 2018 ; Carrillo et al. 2018 ; Yan et al. 2016 ; Shirvani et al. 2015 ), while there are relatively few studies on inland water surface temperature (IWST). According to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and a National Science Foundation–funded study

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Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

the warm sector of extratropical cyclones coming off the Pacific Ocean ( Neiman et al. 2008 ). They are defined in a variety of ways, based upon their scale and intensity. Neiman et al. (2008) defined them as narrow plumes of integrated water vapor (IWV) exceeding 2 cm and over 2000 km long and less than 1000 km wide. They are also defined by integrated water vapor transport (IVT), with one common form of this equation given by Gao et al. (2015) : (1) IVT = ⁡ ( 1 g ∫ 1000 500 q u   d p ) 2

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Prabhakar Shrestha

water storage. The model was then initialized with spinup soil–vegetation states, and a 10-yr transient run from 2008 to 2017 was conducted using the offline atmospheric forcing data. The vegetation phenology (consisting of monthly data) was updated yearly based on the MODIS remote sensing product. The model was integrated at hourly frequency, and the outputs were generated at 5-day intervals. d. Observations The near-surface soil moisture from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Kerr et al

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Jessica C. A. Baker, Dayana Castilho de Souza, Paulo Y. Kubota, Wolfgang Buermann, Caio A. S. Coelho, Martin B. Andrews, Manuel Gloor, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Silvio N. Figueroa, and Dominick V. Spracklen

downloaded from the CMIP6 Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) archives ( https://esgf-index1.ceda.ac.uk/search/cmip6-ceda/ ) at monthly resolution (surface SM data only were downloaded at daily resolution and converted to monthly means, due to monthly output being unavailable for this variable). MM (medium resolution in atmosphere and ocean) simulations (N216) have a horizontal resolution equivalent to approximately 60 km in the midlatitudes ( Roberts et al. 2019 ). HadGEM3 uses the Unified Model global

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Zhangkang Shu, Jianyun Zhang, Junliang Jin, Lin Wang, Guoqing Wang, Jie Wang, Zhouliang Sun, Ji Liu, Yanli Liu, Ruimin He, Cuishan Liu, and Zhenxin Bao

://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/tigge/levtype=sfc/type=cf/ . More details about the model configuration can be found at https://confluence.ecmwf.int/display/TIGGE/Models# . Notably, until 2018, only the ECMWF was coupled to an ocean wave and dynamic ocean circulation model while the other models only describe land and atmospheric processes. Table 1. Information of the numerical prediction products studied in this work. Note: bold indicates the parameters of the dataset selected in this work. BVs: bred vectors; EOF: empirical orthogonal function; EnKF

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E. C. Massoud, H. Lee, P. B. Gibson, P. Loikith, and D. E. Waliser

, or the historical and the future long-term mean daily precipitation, are similar for all the model averages produced. We would like to point out that there could be concern about using the TRMM precipitation data product over CONUS when there are other longer (arguably more reliable) in situ products available, such as CPC. However, for precipitation over the oceans and for higher temporal resolution, TRMM data can provide some benefits worth mentioning. These two advantages of TRMM will enable

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Hernan A. Moreno, Enrique R. Vivoni, and David J. Gochis

precipitation forecasts relative to observed rainfall fields derived from a calibrated radar product for two summer convection periods (hereafter called storm events). Subsequently, we investigate the distributed flood forecasting skill and its dependence with lead time and catchment scale for the ensemble rainfall forecasts. In addition, we investigate how precipitation errors are transmitted to streamflow uncertainty at internal watershed sites as a flood wave progresses downstream. For these events and

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Kian Abbasnezhadi, Alain N. Rousseau, Étienne Foulon, and Stéphane Savary

would be time consuming. The parameters associated with the channel flow process, computed using the kinematic wave equation, were also not found to be sensitive. Previous VARS applications performed by Foulon et al. (2019) in two basins in southern Quebec yielded different results for the vertical water budget parameters. Z1 was shown to be the least sensitive soil layer thickness, while Z2 and Z3 were the second most and the most sensitive parameters, respectively. Also, the recession

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Anil Kumar, Robert A. Houze Jr., Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

also shown in Figs. 10c and 10d . As suggested by RH , both the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea were important sources of moisture that were necessary for the MCSs propagating along the Tibetan Plateau. Additionally, Medina et al. (2010) showed that surface fluxes of sensible heat can increase buoyancy and previous precipitation features can contribute to moisture fluxes from the Arabian Sea. Thus, in addition to the oceanic moisture sources, local moisture sources and surface fluxes likely

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