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E. C. Massoud, H. Lee, P. B. Gibson, P. Loikith, and D. E. Waliser

, or the historical and the future long-term mean daily precipitation, are similar for all the model averages produced. We would like to point out that there could be concern about using the TRMM precipitation data product over CONUS when there are other longer (arguably more reliable) in situ products available, such as CPC. However, for precipitation over the oceans and for higher temporal resolution, TRMM data can provide some benefits worth mentioning. These two advantages of TRMM will enable

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Kian Abbasnezhadi, Alain N. Rousseau, Étienne Foulon, and Stéphane Savary

would be time consuming. The parameters associated with the channel flow process, computed using the kinematic wave equation, were also not found to be sensitive. Previous VARS applications performed by Foulon et al. (2019) in two basins in southern Quebec yielded different results for the vertical water budget parameters. Z1 was shown to be the least sensitive soil layer thickness, while Z2 and Z3 were the second most and the most sensitive parameters, respectively. Also, the recession

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Viviana Maggioni, Humberto J. Vergara, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Dimitrios Stampoulis

Model (SAC-SMA; Burnash et al. 1973 ) for runoff generation and a kinematic wave model for flow routing. For the latter, a rating curve method is available ( Koren et al. 2004 ), which was selected for this study. SAC-SMA has 17 conceptual parameters while the routing model consists of 2 parameters. Initial spatially distributed estimates for 11 of the SAC-SMA parameters were available from the work of Koren et al. (2000) . The remaining 6 parameters were implemented as lumped values established

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Anil Kumar, Robert A. Houze Jr., Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

also shown in Figs. 10c and 10d . As suggested by RH , both the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea were important sources of moisture that were necessary for the MCSs propagating along the Tibetan Plateau. Additionally, Medina et al. (2010) showed that surface fluxes of sensible heat can increase buoyancy and previous precipitation features can contribute to moisture fluxes from the Arabian Sea. Thus, in addition to the oceanic moisture sources, local moisture sources and surface fluxes likely

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Chuanhao Wu, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Yi-Ying Chen, Bill X. Hu, and Guoru Huang

frequency and severity of climate extremes such as flood, drought, and heat waves, all of which are closely tied to large economic losses and casualties ( Wang et al. 2017 ). Among climate hazards, drought leads to major agricultural, economic, and environmental damages with significant global economic losses per year ( Wilhite 2000 ). It is therefore important to investigate how the drought risks may change if global warming can be controlled to within 1.5° and 2°C, and whether significant differences

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Xuejian Cao, Youcun Qi, and Guangheng Ni

selected as a typical urban catchment to conduct related research work many times ( Cao et al. 2020a ; Lyu et al. 2018 ). The routed flow is then distributed uniformly over the downstream grid. Given the effect of backwater and turbulence in the sewer network, the one-dimensional dynamic wave approach is selected to compute the sewer flow to obtain a better simulation ( Rossman and Huber 2017 ). 3. Numerical simulation scheme and evaluation method To understand the impacts of BIRR on the hydrologic

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Nina Raoult, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Pascal Maugis

compared to hours to days), the residence times of soil moisture are also important for the prediction of heat waves ( Lorenz et al. 2010 ), droughts ( Nicholson 2000 ), floods ( Bonan and Stillwell-Soller 1998 ), crop yield ( de Wit and Van Diepen 2008 ), or wildfires ( Krueger et al. 2015 ). However, modeling soil moisture dynamics is complex since it exhibits large sensitivities to meteorological forcing data and land surface model parameterizations. Fortunately, there are now a large variety of

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Jun Li, Zhaoli Wang, Xushu Wu, Chong-Yu Xu, Shenglian Guo, and Xiaohong Chen

calibration metrics for “high-flow” estimation using hydrologic models . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 23 , 2601 – 2614 , . 10.5194/hess-23-2601-2019 Mo , K. C. , and D. P. Lettenmaier , 2015 : Heat wave flash droughts in decline . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 2823 – 2829 , . 10.1002/2015GL064018 Mo , K. C. , and D. P. Lettenmaier , 2016 : Precipitation deficit flash droughts over the United States . J

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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Randal Koster, Yoo-Geun Ham, and Max Suarez

Plains (33°–50°N, 108°–85°W) during 2012. Values have a 10-day running mean applied. In summary, the timing of the impacts of the ocean basins on U.S. temperature anomalies is similar in the two years. We have already seen ( Fig. 7 ) that the cold season response to SST is linked to large-scale changes in the stationary waves, with the response to the Pacific associated with a PNA-like response and the response to the Atlantic resembling a NAO-like structure. During the summer the warming and drying

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Vincent Häfliger, Eric Martin, Aaron Boone, Florence Habets, Cédric H. David, Pierre-A. Garambois, Hélène Roux, Sophie Ricci, Lucie Berthon, Anthony Thévenin, and Sylvain Biancamaria

1. Introduction Remote sensing from spaceborne platforms is increasingly used for the monitoring of components of the hydrological cycle, including river discharge ( Santos da Silva et al. 2010 ). The surface soil moisture can be observed by the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellites ( Pierdicca et al. 2013 ; Kerr et al. 2010 ; Flores et al. 2012 ). The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite

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