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A. I. Weinstein

appropriate applications of models of this typethat have been used are as follows: 1) In sensitivity analyses "...to isolate the role played by each complicated phenomenon [-in cumulus clouds3, [-in order to~ decide which should be modeled in detail and to determine the neces sary field data needed for comparative studies.''2 2) In conjunction with weather modification field projects "...as a help in selecting test clouds for which the dynamics effect [-of seeding~ is expected to be

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Weather and Climate Modification of the Committee on Atmospb. edc Sciences, NAS, 1964: Scientific problems of weather modification. Publication 1236, National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council, Washington, 56 pp.Reply Roscoe R. By, AinU,,The University of Chicago22 April 1965 and 22 May 1965 The major points of my paper are that the initialdevelopment of rain in cumulus clouds of our area isstrongly dominated by the coalescence mechanism andthat ice particles develop in virtually

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Wenshou Tian and Douglas J. Parker

responsible for flow patterns over a hill in the presence of thermal convection. Although much attention has been paid in previous studies to flow responses over or in the vicinity of a single hill (e.g., McNider and Pielke 1981 ; Chen et al. 1996 ; and many others), systematic modification of convection downstream of a hill by terrain-related processes is not well addressed. The downstream modification of convection by terrain-induced gravity waves is, in particular, a subject of much debate and worth

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Ralph Shapiro

-Hill, 470 pp.Matsuno, T., 1966: Quasl-geostrophic motions in equatorial areas. J. Meteor. So-. Japan, 44, 25-42.Panofsky, H., 1958: Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. Pennsyl vania State University Press, p. 119.Petterssen, S., 1956: Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Vol. 1. New York, McGraw-Hill, 428 pp.--, and collaborators, 1939: Relations between variations in the intensity of the zonal circulation of the atmosphere and the displacements of the semi-permanent centers of action. J. Marine

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August H. Auer Jr.

. Since it is generally accepted that the concentration of ice crystalsvitally affects the formation and growth of precipitationin many cloud systems, measurements of ice crystalconcentrations can thus provide important basicknowledge concerning weather modification attemptswhich depend, in principle, upon introducing icecrystals into supercooled clouds in which, supposedly,no crystals have yet formed. Concentrations (interpreted as deposition~ nuclei) effective at various temperatures and unspecified

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R. D. Cess, B. P. Briegleb, and M. S. Lian

March 1981, in final form 17 August 1981)ABSTRACT At low latitudes the seasonal variation in the radiation budget of the earth-atmosphere system is duelargely to seasonal variability in cloudiness. Making use of this, we have estimated, from three differentsets of satellite data, the relative albedo versus infrared modifications associated with cloudiness variabilityat low latitudes, Employing satelliie data sets due to Ellis and Vonder Haa (1976) and Campbell andVonder Haar (1980), we find that

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Hermann E. Gerber

., 20, 602-609.--, 1970: Modification of the membrane technique to efficiently detect and study silver iodide ice nuclei. Preprlnts of Papers, Second Natl. Conference Weather Modification, Santa Barbara, Calif., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 352-356.Middleton, J. R., and A. H. Auer, Jr., 1970: Ice crystals grown within the NCAR ice nucleus' counter. Preprints of Papers Conference on Cloud Physics, Fort Collins, Colo., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87-88.Whitby, K. T., and W. E. Clark, 1965: Electric aerosol

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F. A. Sabransky

.Instrument readings were found to agree substantially with results predicted by previously publishedmethods. Individual cases are treated to show the interrelationship with the increase in signal strength andthe development of the super-refractive layer as a result of air-mass movement and modification.1. IntroductionA simple method of predicting extended coveragefor surface targets by low-sited radar units was developed at the Navy Electronics Laboratory. It wasshown that refractive index profiles based upon

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Jeroen Oortwijn and Jan Barkmeijer

3932 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 52, NO. 22Perturbations That Optimally Trigger Weather Re~mes JEROEN OORTWIJN AND JAN BAP, tCME~Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, the Netherlands(Manuscript received 5 December 1994, in final form 19 May 1995)ABSTRACT The sensitivity of the onset of two weather regimes with respect to initial conditions is studied. The weatherregimes ate a Euro

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H. Lettau and J. Zabransky

718 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoL~;~m25Interrelated Changes of Wind Profile Structure and Richardson Number in Air Flow from Land to Inland LakesH. Lv. TTAU AND J. ZABRANSK-(Manuscript received 3 April 1968) A semi-empirical model for wind profile modification, in airflow from land to water on the 2-kin scale, isdiscussed using 1950 Lake Hefner data. Initial (rough-surface) and finai

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