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E. Brian Curran, Ronald L. Holle, and Raúl E. López

1. Introduction This paper summarizes information on casualties (deaths and injuries combined) and damages due to lightning in the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) publication Storm Data. This resource was used in a similar study by Dittmann (1994) of state-by-state per capita rates of flood deaths from 1959 to 1991. Annual summaries of weather impacts based on Storm Data have been published since 1990 by NOAA's National Weather Service. Table

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Rebecca L. Gianotti and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

to convective parameterization relevant to this work. Some modifications were made to the boundary layer parameterization scheme ( Holtslag et al. 1990 ; Holtslag and Boville 1993 ) within RegCM3, the simulation of large-scale clouds within the PBL, soil thermal conductivity, and ocean surface roughness (see Gianotti 2012 for details). The vertical limit on simulated cloud cover was also extended to permit clouds up to an altitude of about 16 km. The combination of these modifications resulted

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Dudley B. Chelton, Steven K. Esbensen, Michael G. Schlax, Nicolai Thum, Michael H. Freilich, Frank J. Wentz, Chelle L. Gentemann, Michael J. McPhaden, and Paul S. Schopf

winds is indicative of a coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere in the form of oceanic modification of atmospheric boundary layer stability. The objective of this study is to analyze newly available satellite observations of surface wind stress and sea surface temperature (SST) to investigate this hypothesized ocean–atmosphere interaction. The mechanism responsible for the hypothesized coupling between SST and surface wind stress is the change of boundary layer stability that occurs as air

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Sébastien Conil and Laurent Z-X. Li

during the winter season, Hudson and Hewitson (2001) have examined the effect of realistic sea ice modifications around the Antarctic in summer. Recently, two companion papers by Magnusdottir et al. (2004) and Deser et al. (2004) have investigated the atmospheric response simulated by the third National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM3) to modifications of the SST and sea ice in the North Atlantic. They have shown that the atmospheric response to a dipolar

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W. M. Briggs and D. S. Wilks

). Theother portions of these stochastic weather models include forecast-sensitive parameters, such as thoseshown in Fig. 2. These larger "weather generator"models can be used as input to crop simulation models(e.g., Jones and Kiniry 1986) in order to project probability distributions over crop yield and other responses, such as soil moisture. Briggs (1996) and Briggs and Wilks (1996b) discuss in more detail the modification of the parametersof stochastic weather generators conditional on particular

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Melissa Free and Bomin Sun

inhomogeneities due to factors such as orbital drift and changes in view angle ( Evan et al. 2007 ; Norris 2005 ). The records of routine cloud observations by human weather observers extend back many decades before the beginning of satellite observations and therefore may provide a useful alternative source of information about past cloudiness changes. However, these datasets are also subject to changes in observing and archiving procedures that can make them unsuitable for climate change detection. The

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Andrea N. Grant, Alexander A. P. Pszenny, and Emily V. Fischer

(44°16′N, 71°18′W, 1914 m MSL) is part of the Presidential Range of the northern Appalachian Mountains. Neighboring peaks are at approximately 1600 m, and tree line for the range is at approximately 1400 m. Weather observations have been taken continuously on the summit of Mount Washington since late 1932, and the Mount Washington Observatory has been designated as a National Weather Service “cooperative station” since 1 January 1937. Figure 1 shows the location of Mount Washington in the

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Filippo Giorgi, Gary T. Bates, and Steven J. Nieman

reduced over topographical gradients and an inflow-outflow lateral boundary conditionwas implemented for water vapor. These modifications were found to provide an improved simulation ofsummer precipitation while not substantially altering wintertime precipitation. This work shows that it is feasible to perform good quality, multiyear simulations with current limited-areamodels and, therefore, that it is feasible to apply such models to climate studies.1. Introduction In the last several years

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Erica Madonna, Heini Wernli, Hanna Joos, and Olivia Martius

polar-front theory emphasized the role of preexisting surface fronts for cyclone development and the formation of precipitation ( Bjerknes and Solberg 1922 ). Although many modifications and extensions have become necessary in the following years, this concept has served as a cornerstone of synoptic meteorology until today, since it offers a coherent framework for a unified view of the processes and evolution of cyclonic weather systems ( Reed 1990 ; Friedman 1999 ). Later, isentropic analyses of

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Matthew Collins and Myles R. Allen

, J. F. B. , and T. C. Johns , 1997 : On the modification of global warming by sulphate aerosols. J. Climate , 10 , 245 – 267 . Molteni , F. , R. Buzzia , T. N. Palmer , and T. Petroliagis , 1996 : The ECMWF ensemble prediction system: Methodology and validation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 122 , 73 – 119 . Roads , J. O. , 1986 : Forecasts of time averages with a numerical weather prediction model. J. Atmos. Sci. , 43 , 871 – 893 . Rowell , D. P. , 1998

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