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Timothy A. Coleman, Kevin R. Knupp, and John T. Tarvin

sound in the atmosphere is only about 340 m s −1 . For example, the light from a typical aurora is produced near a height of 100 km MSL ( Stern and Peredo 2001 ), and any sound waves generated from that height would take almost 300 s to reach the earth’s surface. The instantaneous nature of the sound implies that it must be associated with electromagnetic waves generated by the aurora, traveling at or near the speed of light. Of course, one cannot hear electromagnetic waves, only the effects the

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David O'C. Starr, C. Laurence Korb, Geary K. Schwemmer, and Chi Y. Weng

-observed cloudfields (e.g., Erickson and Whitney 1973; Stobie et al.1983; Pecnick and Young 1984; Bosart and Seimon1988). Clark et al. ( 1981 ) and Smith et al. (1988) havealso incorporated in situ measurements from a lightaircraft into their analysis of undular bores. Until re Corresponding author address: Dr. David O'C. Starr, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Atmospheres, Greenbelt,MD 20771.cently, acoustic sounding (sodar) has prodded the onlymeans of remotely probing the internal structure

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David H. Bromwich and Zhong Liu

-685.Hall, F. F., and E. J. Owens, 1975: Atmospheric acoustic echo sound ing investigations at the South Pole. Antarct. J. U.S., 10, 191 192.Hines, K. M., D. H. Bromwich, and T. R. Parish, 1995: A mesoscalemodeling study of the atmospheric circulation of high southernlatitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1146-1165.Kaimal, J. C., and J. J. Finnigan, 1994: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows: Their Structure and Measurement. Oxford University Press. 289 pp.Keller, L. M., G. A. Weidner, and C

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James D. Doyle

currents and circulations. The conventional representation of the surface roughness effects over the sea due to ocean waves, based on the scaling arguments of Charnock (1955) , is used by nearly all atmospheric research and operational models, and is strictly valid only for fully developed ocean wave conditions. Under high wind conditions, however, wind direction and speed are often time dependent, such as for a translating tropical cyclone or topographically driven flows in the coastal zone. In these

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Robert M. Banta, Yelena L. Pichugina, W. Alan Brewer, Aditya Choukulkar, Kathleen O. Lantz, Joseph B. Olson, Jaymes Kenyon, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Raghu Krishnamurthy, Mark J. Stoelinga, Justin Sharp, Lisa S. Darby, David D. Turner, Sunil Baidar, and Scott P. Sandberg

pulse Doppler radar. Preprints, Ninth Conf. on Radar Meteorology , Kansas City, MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 218–223 . Long , C. N. , and T. P. Ackerman , 2000 : Identification of clear skies from broadband pyranometer measurements and calculation of downwelling shortwave cloud effects . J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 15 609 – 15 626 , . 10.1029/2000JD900077 Long , C. N. , T. P. Ackerman , K. L. Gaustad , and J. N. S. Cole , 2006 : Estimation of

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C. Michael Trexler and Steven E. Koch

those air currents. The strong low-level downdraft at 1718 UTC is in fairly good agreement with the vertical beam data, but the strong midlevel updraft at 1706 UTC does not agree at all with Fig. 8 due to the subtraction of hydrometeor effects, which entirely dominate the vertical beam measurements there. Major features in the synthesized vertical velocity analysis are generally consistent with precipitation physics. The main midlevel updrafts are reasonably placed when considering the timing of

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JANUARY, 1901. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW. 26much-discussed question of the abnormal aberration of fogsignals. It will be remembered that Prof. Joseph Henry,who for twelve years served as chairman of the LighthouseBoard, thought that the wind played a more important partin the abnormal aberration of sound waves than the so-called acoustic clouds described by Professor Tyndall. It is prob- able that up to a certain point both explanations may hold,but the wind is seemingly the more active factor in

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P. Jabouille, J. L. Redelsperger, and J. P. Lafore

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 124ab240Km152E154E 156E 158E 154E 155E~G. 4. The 17 February situation (~ IR s~ellite picture ~ 2145 UTC (b) composi~ reflecfivity pa~em from P3 lower-~selage r~ at 2200 UTC.every hour by using 5 min of acoustic signal (for theother RASS site measurement the temporal resolutionwas 0.5 h). Despite low

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Scott M. Steiger, Robert Schrom, Alfred Stamm, Daniel Ruth, Keith Jaszka, Timothy Kress, Brett Rathbun, Jeffrey Frame, Joshua Wurman, and Karen Kosiba

apart. But that vortex's measured delta-V would be substantially reduced. Since corrections for these possible range effects (see section 5b ) had minimal impact we decided to show raw measurements of the vortex diameter and strength (delta-V) in this study. Vortex characteristics were measured at the elevation angle of greatest strength and/or organization of the vortex in each sector volume scan. Organization was defined as the presence of a distinct Doppler velocity couplet (adjacent maxima of

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Masaru Yamamoto and Naoki Hirose

meteorology of the Japan Sea is important in terms of the Asian wintertime monsoon and heavy snowfall events that lead to natural disasters. The Tsushima Warm Current provides a rich supply of water vapor and heat to the wintertime monsoon over the Japan Sea. Based on ship-borne acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations in the Tsushima Strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu Island, Japan (around 34°N, 128°E), Hirose and Fukudome (2006) found that the inlet flow volume of the warm

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