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James G. Hudson and Seong Soo Yum

., 1999: TRMM observed first direct evidence of smoke from forest fires inhibiting rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3105–3108. ——, and I. M. Lensky, 1998: Spaceborne sensed insights into precipitation formation processes in continental and maritime clouds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 2457–2476. Rotstayn, L. D., 1999: Indirect forcing by anthropogenic aerosols: A global climate model calculation of the effective-radius and cloud-lifetime effects. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 9369

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Gunnar Myhre, Frode Stordal, Tore F. Berglen, Jostein K. Sundet, and Ivar S. A. Isaksen

and investigate several effects of importance for the radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosols. We start by using several sulfate distributions and several different assumptions on optical properties of sulfate aerosols. Furthermore, we elaborate on uncertainties due to relative humidity and clouds by adopting data from various sources. 2. Models a. Chemistry transport modeling of the sulfate distribution The global sulfate distribution is calculated using the Oslo chemical transport model 2 (CTM

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P. Bradshaw

atmosphericfeedback m. echanisms employing zonal climatology. J'. Atmos.S-i., 33, 1831-1843.Charney, J., W. J. Quirk, S. H. Chow and J. Kornfield, 1977: A comparative study.of the effects of albedo change on drought in semi-arid regions. J. Atn~os. &i., 34, .1366-1385.~LIMAP Project Members, 1976: The surface of the ice-age earth. Sden~e, 191, 1131-1137.'Gal-Chen, T., and S. H. Sch.neider, 1976: Energy balance climate modeling: Comparison of radiative and dynamic feedback mechanisms. T,lh~s, 28, 108

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B. A. Bodhaine and R. F. Pueschel

data of Fowle. Solar radiation has been monitored at Mauna LoaObservatory, Hawaii (3.4 km MSL, 20N, 155W) since1957. Since then there has been no significant change atMauna Loa attributable to anthropogenic sources(Ellis and ?ueschel, 1971). In addition, the data from Present affiliation: Manna Loa Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii96720.Mauna Loa exhibit three important effects: 1) an abruptincrease in turbidity in 1963, attributable to volcanicaerosols ejected into the stratosphere by the eruptionof

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Reid A. Bryson and Gerald J. Dittberner

lmst century; but its intensity has as a resultof increased population, increased mechanization andindustrialization, and has been accompanied by continuing increases in fossil fuel consumption. The shortdoubling times of most measures of human activitywould suggest that such atmospheric effects that mightaccrue would be felt on the scale of a decade or so. Itwill be assumed that the major anthropogenic gaseouscontribution is an increase of carbon dioxide above thelong-term natural level. The

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William R. Cotton and Robert Walko

1. Introduction Recent research suggests that anthropogenic hygroscopic pollution aerosol can lead to convective invigoration of the updrafts of cumuli ( Andreae et al. 2004 ; Khain et al. 2005 ; van den Heever et al. 2006 ; van den Heever and Cotton 2007 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ; Carrió and Cotton 2011a ; Fan et al. 2018 ; Storer and van den Heever 2013 ; Altaratz et al. 2014 ). There are two schools of thought interpreting the results of those simulations. The first school of thought

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Kentaroh Suzuki, Teruyuki Nakajima, Atusi Numaguti, Toshihiko Takemura, Kazuaki Kawamoto, and Akiko Higurashi

. Science , 255 , 423 – 430 . Chuang , C. C. , J. E. Penner , K. E. Taylor , and A. S. Grossman , 1997 : An assessment of the radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate. J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 3761 – 3778 . Coakley , J. , A. James , R. L. Bernstein , and P. A. Durkee , 1987 : Effect of ship-stack effluents on cloud reflectivity. Science , 237 , 1020 – 1022 . Conover , J. H. , 1966 : Anomalous cloud lines. J. Atmos. Sci. , 23 , 778 – 785 . Erickson , D. J

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Sandro W. Lubis, Nour-Eddine Omrani, Katja Matthes, and Sebastian Wahl

gradient of quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (PV), [ q ] y , in spherical coordinates ( Matsuno 1970 ) is calculated as where β is the meridional gradient of Coriolis parameter and N is the Brunt–Väisälä frequency. To estimate the effects of different wind structures on the source of instability, the relative contributions of meridional (barotropic) terms and vertical (baroclinic) terms of [ q ] y are also examined separately. 3. Ozone response to anthropogenic forcing Before analyzing the

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Robert D. Cess

, substantial. To cite one example,Otterman (1977) has suggested an anthropogenic influence upon the present-day surface albedo due tocultivation, irrigation and overgrazing. He estimatesthat this might have increased the global surface albedoby 0.013 during the past 6000 years. Correcting for thisanthropogenic effect would lower the present-day surface albedo, defining "present-day" conditions in theabsence of anthropogenic effects, thus increasing(/xao)bio b_y almost 50%. But the corresponding increasein

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Yu-Long Xie, Philip K. Hopke, Pentti Paatero, Leonard A. Barrie, and Shao-Meng Li

( Barrie 1986 ; Barrie and Hoff 1985 ). In order to understand the real or potential effects of the Arctic air pollution to the polar ecosystem and global climate and to develop an appropriate strategy for controlling and reducing the extent of Arctic air pollution, a series of questions, such as the nature of the man-made pollutants, the origins of the chemical species, the mechanism of the long-range transportation, and the transformation of gaseous compounds in the atmosphere that occurs in the cold

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