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Anne Felsberg, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Manuela Girotto, Jean Poesen, Rolf H. Reichle, and Thomas Stanley

with steep local relief and with hillslope materials of low shear strength. Time-variant preconditioning factors can be of anthropogenic, seismic, or hydrometeorological (climatic or seasonal) nature. In this study, we focus on the latter, taking into account solely hydrologically triggered landslides. To prevent loss of life and mitigate damages, efforts are made to predict the likelihood of landslides by determining and monitoring the conditions leading to landslides (hereafter referred to as

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Mostafa Tarek, François P. Brissette, and Richard Arsenault

information measured at a small scale (typically, a point measurement at a weather station) onto a predefined spatial and temporal resolution grid. However, variations in gauge types or instrument replacements affect error characteristics in long-term records. In addition, observations are affected by systematic biases due to evaporation and wind effects, as well as the elevation of gauges in mountainous regions ( Isotta et al. 2014 ). Gauges are also typically placed in regions allowing easier access for

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Guoyong Leng, Maoyi Huang, Qiuhong Tang, Huilin Gao, and L. Ruby Leung

-0889.2007.00251.x . Pokhrel, Y. N. , Hanasaki N. , Yeh P. J.-F. , Yamada T. J. , Kanae S. , and Oki T. , 2012 : Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage . Nat. Geosci. , 5 , 389 – 392 , doi:10.1038/ngeo1476 . Puma, M. J. , and Cook B. I. , 2010 : Effects of irrigation on global climate during the 20th century . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D16120 , doi:10.1029/2010JD014122 . Qian, Y. , Huang M. , Yang B. , and Berg L. K. , 2013

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G. T. Narisma and A. J. Pitman

1. Introduction Land cover change (LCC) has been recognized as an important anthropogenic climate forcing ( Houghton et al. 2001 ) that can be as significant as increasing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations at regional scales ( Hansen et al. 1998 ; Couzin 1999 ; Pielke 2001 ). Climate research over the last decade has shown that a change in vegetation cover can significantly affect regional climate (e.g., Pielke et al. 1998 ; Pielke 2001 ). Regional impacts due to LCC on mean air

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

against GRACE observations Figure 2 plots the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) comparison between GRACE observations and that from the MAT-NAT and H08-NAT simulations for nine selected large river basins located in different climatic regions. We compare MAT-NAT and H08-NAT simulations because the anthropogenic water regulation modules are identical in both models and the effects of reservoir storage are not significant in the selected basins. The 2002–07 monthly GRACE data used in this study

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Xiangyu Ao, C. S. B. Grimmond, H. C. Ward, A. M. Gabey, Jianguo Tan, Xiu-Qun Yang, Dongwei Liu, Xing Zhi, Hongya Liu, and Ning Zhang

evaporation only occurs after precipitation events, even though SLUCM implements a sophisticated representation of urban canopy geometry. Recently, enhanced hydrological processes including anthropogenic latent heat, urban irrigation, and urban oasis effects have been implemented into the SLUCM system ( Miao and Chen 2014 ; Yang et al. 2015 ), which improves the model performance substantially especially for the latent heat flux. Given the large fraction of impervious surfaces in urban areas, city

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Yasuhiro Ishizaki, Tokuta Yokohata, Seita Emori, Hideo Shiogama, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Naota Hanasaki, Toru Nozawa, Tomoo Ogura, Toshiyuki Nakaegawa, Masakazu Yoshimori, Ai Yoshida, and Shigeru Watanabe

(MPI-ESM-LR; Brovkin et al. 2013 ). Because a simulated hydrological cycle is sensitive to internal variability in the climate system, we selected five models that had at least three ensemble members each and analyzed the ensemble means for each model. All of the models can treat direct and indirect effects of carbonaceous aerosols (black carbon and organic matter) and sulfate aerosols. The emission scenario in each representative concentration pathway (RCP) specifies the anthropogenic aerosol

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Pouya Vahmani and Terri S. Hogue

1. Introduction Increasing municipal water use has raised interest in improved understanding of the urban water balance, especially in rapidly urbanizing regions where imported water is a significant portion of the water budget ( USDA 2009 ; Gober and Kirkwood 2010 ; Bhaskar and Welty 2012 ). Irrigation is an important component of water cycling in semiarid cities where planted vegetation may not be adapted to the local climate and requires additional watering. In such regions, anthropogenic

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Jinwon Kim, Yu Gu, and K. N. Liou

climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia: A regional coupled climate-chemistry/aerosol model study. J. Geophys. Res. , 107 . 4439, doi:10.1029/2001JD001066 . Gu, Y. , Fararra J. , Liou K-N. , and Mechoso C. R. , 2003 : Parameterization of cloud–radiation processes in the UCLA general circulation model. J. Climate , 16 , 3357 – 3370 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3357:POCPIT>2.0.CO;2 Gueymard, C. , Laulainen C. , Vaughan J. , and Vignola F. , 2000 : China’s dust

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Nicole Mölders and Mark A. Olson

on private dwells, and many outdoor winter activities depend on snow height. Therefore, residents are sensitive to the implications of anthropogenically caused changes in precipitation. However, high-latitude urban effects on solid precipitation are not well understood. Cities influence the atmosphere by releasing particles, moisture, and heat, and they exhibit changed surface characteristics as compared to rural land. These anthropogenic modifications of the natural environment and air affect

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