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J. Antoon van Hooft, Peter Baas, Maurice van Tiggelen, Cedrick Ansorge, and Bas J. H. van de Wiel

.g., Angevine et al. 2001 ; Beare 2008 ) and late-afternoon transition (e.g., Grimsdell and Angevine 2002 ; van Heerwaarden and Mellado 2016 ) aim to bridge the gap in our understanding that lays between convective and stable boundary layer conditions. However, proper understanding of the interactions between even the most prominent processes that govern the dynamical evolution of the ABL during a diurnal cycle, including the transitional dynamics, remains elusive ( Lothon et al. 2014 ; LeMone et al

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Michael Hantel

752 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo~.u'~l$Polar Boundary Conditions in Zonally Averaged Global Climate Models IYJ[ICtL~EL ~-~NTELMeteoroDgische* Instltut der Univer~ittit Bonn, 53 Bonn, Federal R~In~lic of Germcny(Manuscript received 8 February 1974, in revised form 21 June t974)ABSTRACT We consider global climate models based on zonally averaged balance relations. Inherent boundary

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FREDERICK G. SHUMAN and LLOYD W. VANDERMAN

May 1966Frederick G. Shuman and Lloyd W. Vundermun 3 29DIFFERENCE SYSTEM AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONSFOR THE PRIMITIVE-EQUATION BAROTROPIC FORECAST FREDERICK G. SHUMAN AND LLOYD W. VANDERMANNational Meteorological Center, Weather Bureau, ESSA, Washington, D.C.ABSTRACT A primitive-equation free-surface barotropic model was designed for the tropical belt. By the use of Shuman'sdifference system, experiments were made to test t,he effect of both approximate and correct boundary conditions onthe

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Jae-Yul Yun, James M. Price, and Lorenz Magaard

crossflow structure function Φ n = A n e ry , ϕ n was substituted into the potential vorticity equation in the rotated Cartesian coordinate system. Then the amplitude ratio A 2 / A 1 was obtained for each layer, and the two amplitude ratios from the upper and lower layer equations were combined to yield a relation for the crossflow wavenumber. Assuming an infinitely wide ocean, the boundary conditions for a crossflow structure function Φ n were: Φ n → 0 as y = H → ∞ (or y = − H → −∞) and d

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Jonathan D. Kahl and Perry J. Samson

1024 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME27Uncertainty in Estimating Boundnry-Lnyer Transport during Highly Convective Conditions JONATHAN D. KAHL* AND P~RR- J. SAMSONDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science. Space Physics Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (Manuscript received 31 October 1987, in final form 19 February 1988)ABSTRACT Routine and

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D. K. Lilly

JUNE 1981 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 1313NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEWave-Permeable Lateral Boundary Conditions for Convective Cloud and Storm Simulations D. K. LILLYNational Center for Atmospheric Research,~ Boulder, CO 8030727 March 1980 and 2 March 1981 ABSTRACT Linearized conditional instability theory is used to test the effects of lateral boundary conditions onconvective

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Robert E. Tuleya

FEBRUARY 1994 T U L E Y A 291Tropical Storm Development and Decay: Sensitivity to Surface Boundary Conditions ROBERT E. TULEYAGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/National Oceanic' and Atmospheric Administration, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 7 June 1993, in final form 13 August 1993) ABSTRACT Hurricane models have rarely

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Matthew Collins and Myles R. Allen

ocean state that is crucial in the first-kind predictability of climate since this provides the possible “memory” of the system (although other factors such as variations in land cover may be important). Predictability of the second kind focuses on the boundary value problem: how predictable changes in the boundary conditions that affect climate can provide predictive power. A common class of second-kind predictability studies use atmosphere models with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in

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Peter D. Killworth

requires boundary conditions at rigid surfaces. The horizontal component of u + is related to the horizontal components of u ′ and u , and so vanishes on vertical sidewalls. The value of w + , the vertical component of u + , at surface or floor is less obvious. (Unlike the horizontal component of the quasi-Stokes velocity, there is no kinematic reason for w + to vanish, since w + exists to satisfy continuity.) The problems are best seen by considering recent direct eddy

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Sangil Kim, R. M. Samelson, and Chris Snyder

dependence of uncertainty in the coastal ocean state on uncertainty in the wind forcing, in the initial conditions, and in the lateral boundary conditions, and by considering regional forecast-model analysis wind-forcing fields containing the strong spatial variations known to be induced by orographic and other effects. Predictions of the coastal ocean are influenced by a unique combination of processes. In coastal upwelling regimes such as that considered here, the mean wind stress drives Ekman

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