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Matthew D. Shupe, Jennifer M. Comstock, David D. Turner, and Gerald G. Mace

development and integration of higher-frequency microwave channels into LWP retrievals. The utility of the MWRs have forced the program to evaluate the accuracy of the underlying liquid water absorption models, which led to the conclusion that the initial liquid water absorption model used by the program had a large bias ( Westwater et al. 2001 ) and that the current absorption model is inadequate in supercooled liquid water clouds ( Cadeddu and Turner 2011 ; Kneifel et al. 2014 ). Fig . 19

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Robert G. Fovell, Yizhe Peggy Bu, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Wen-wen Tung, Yang Cao, Hung-Chi Kuo, Li-huan Hsu, and Hui Su

that might be employed in operational settings. The semi-idealized framework introduced in P1 used ARW v.2.2 with three telescoping and temporally fixed Mercator-projected domains with the highest horizontal resolution being 3 km. Model physics held fixed in those experiments included the Yonsei University (YSU; Hong et al. 2006 ) planetary boundary layer scheme, and the Dudhia (1989) SW and RRTM (Rapid Radiative Transfer Model; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) LW radiation parameterizations. Subsequent

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

first described in Chow (1964) and later proposed and extended by Sivapalan and Blöschl (2017) and shown in Fig. 25-2 , hydrology first progressed through the Empirical Era (1910–30), to the Rationalization Era (1930–50), to the Systems Era (1950–70). These periods were followed by the Process Era (1970–90), the Geosciences Era (1990–2010), and finally by the current Coevolution Era (2010–30). As noted in the figure, the foundations of networks, experimental basins, operations research, high

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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

measurements. As a further step, Kneifel et al. (2016) for the first time analyzed triple-frequency radar Doppler spectra in snowfall and showed that such sophisticated observations can be used to validate snow scattering models. c. Spaceborne lidar and radar The CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites were launched in 2006 to join the A-Train, a polar satellite family currently consisting of six satellites in a sun-synchronous orbit that passes the equator at 1330 solar time and the ground track pattern

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) first began using RRTMG_LW in the Global Forecast System (GFS) for operational forecasts in 2003, and RRTMG_SW in 2010, though the GFS does not currently utilize McICA. The Climate Forecast System (CFS), which is based on GFS but adapted for longer simulations ( Saha et al. 2006 ), first began using the longwave code in 2004 and the shortwave code in 2010. The recently updated CFS version 2 has implemented McICA with the latest versions of RRTMG ( Saha et al

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter to provide statistically robust datasets relevant to the properties of low liquid water boundary layer clouds and their relationship to aerosol ( Vogelmann et al. 2012 ). Primary aerosol measurements made were cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol size distributions above and below cloud. Campaigns with significant airborne aerosol emphasis include the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) from the NRC Convair to better understand

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Roger Marchand

thin clouds (ARM retrieved optical depth < ~0.3), which MISR usually fails to detect. Black symbols are multilayer clouds, where the upper-level cloud is optically thin (ARM-retrieved optical depth <1–2) and MISR has returned the height of a lower cloud layer. Other symbols represent various types of optically thick clouds. Blue is stratiform cloud (fills 11-km patch), green is broken boundary layer cloud, and magenta is cloud with diffuse (low condensate) cloud top. Uncertainty is higher at high

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

be assigned for the separation of liquid [0 ≤ μ ice ≤ ], ice [ ≤ μ ice ≤ 1]), and mixed-phase [ < μ ice ≤ ] conditions. Currently, there is no physical basis for a particular choice of and . In many studies ,the choice of and is dictated by the type and accuracy of the airborne instrumentation, such as = 0.1 and = 0.9 ( Korolev et al. 2003 ; Field et al. 2004 ; and others). Another important aspect in the definition of cloud phase is related to the spatial (or volumetric

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

way the club systematically determined the exact path of the typhoon’s eye. Later in his career, Yanai was convinced that the meteorology boys invented this method before Professor Tetsuya (Ted) Fujita used a similar strategy to determine tornado tracks. The club reported its results to the Yokohama Weather Station (currently, the Yokohama District Observatory). They received thanks and praise for their investigation, and made the news the next morning. Fig . 2. Doing oil painting near Chigasaki

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

s. They continue to evolve world-wide. Hence, forecasters are faced with the dilemma of, for example, differentiating a storm that produces a 2.5-cm hailstone from one that produces a 2.4-cm hailstone. Although such accuracy is well beyond the current state of the science, the science of such storms can be employed to estimate the probability of a storm that would meet or exceed the arbitrary criteria. From the perspective of the modern world, it can be challenging to imagine the state of the

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