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Richard Kleeman

spectrum of ENSO variability (e.g., Kleeman 2008b ) and another that is proposed as a mechanism for midlatitude decadal variability (see Saravanan and McWilliams 1998 ). In both these cases one can show that the basic behavior of the stochastic model is explicable using a two-dimensional OU process (see Kleeman 2002 , 2008a ). Qualitatively such a system is a white noise–forced damped oscillation with the period of oscillation determined by a natural physical time scale. In the ENSO case this is

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Yushi Morioka, Francois Engelbrecht, and Swadhin K. Behera

1. Introduction Climate variability at a decadal or longer time scale is a key issue for the society to mitigate climate-related risks and establish long-term adaptation plans for agriculture, fisheries, water management, city design, etc. A growing number of studies have to date elaborated on decadal or multidecadal climate variability, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere [e.g., Pacific decadal variability ( Mantua et al. 1997 ) and Atlantic meridional oscillation ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty

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Kewei Lyu, Xuebin Zhang, John A. Church, Jianyu Hu, and Jin-Yi Yu

the Pacific ( Fig. 1a ). It has been increasingly recognized that regional sea level trend patterns calculated over such a short time period (~2 decades) are at least partly related to the low-frequency climate variability with periods longer than interannual time scales (e.g., Zhang and Church 2012 ; Palanisamy et al. 2015a ). It remains unclear if there is any detectable anthropogenic climate change signal in the altimeter-observed sea level trend pattern ( Meyssignac et al. 2012 ; Han et al

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Bo Qiu, Shuiming Chen, and Niklas Schneider

extensive exploration of the impact of OE variability upon the overlying atmosphere, our understanding about the causes that generate the OE variability remains limited. Using both ship and satellite SST measurements of 1982–96, Nakamura and Kazmin (2003) detected a decadal intensification of the OE front during the period of 1988–94. They attributed this frontal intensification to the combined surface net heat flux and Ekman flux convergence forcing. Based on lead–lag regression analysis, Nonaka et

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Lingsheng Meng, Wei Zhuang, Weiwei Zhang, Angela Ditri, and Xiao-Hai Yan

) found decadal sea level and wind stress changes around 2000 in the Indo-Pacific region. While the multidecadal regional sea level shifts in the Pacific during 1958–2008 were found by Moon et el. (2013) , Hamlington et al. (2016) uncovered an ongoing shift in Pacific Ocean sea level over the past few years. Han et al. (2014) found the western tropical Pacific decadal and multidecadal sea level variability intensified during recent decades. Many previous studies have associated sea level

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Matthew B. Menary, Daniel L. R. Hodson, Jon I. Robson, Rowan T. Sutton, and Richard A. Wood

1. Introduction The North Atlantic Ocean has been shown to be a key region for the initialization of decadal forecasts ( Dunstone et al. 2011 ), and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in this region are likely important for the climates of the nearby continents of North America and Europe ( Rodwell et al. 1999 ). SSTs in the North Atlantic show large multidecadal variability ( Knight et al. 2005 ), which has been linked to drought in the Sahel region ( Folland et al. 1986 ; Zhang and Delworth

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Jia Wang, James Kessler, Xuezhi Bai, Anne Clites, Brent Lofgren, Alexandre Assuncao, John Bratton, Philip Chu, and George Leshkevich

of decadal and multidecadal variability in lake ice. Previous studies ( Magnuson et al. 2000 ; Ghanbari et al. 2009 ; Weyhenmeyer et al. 2011 ; Mishra et al. 2011 ) showed that there is a weak linear relationship between little lake ice cover in North America and the AMO and PDO, in addition to, ENSO and NAO, or the Arctic Oscillation (AO). No further investigations combining these patterns were conducted. In other words, no quantitative relationships were derived, although they qualitatively

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Gerald A. Meehl, Aixue Hu, and Benjamin D. Santer

time scales longer than interannual. This pattern (shown later in Fig. 2c ) has been associated with multidecadal variability in the Pacific that appears to be distinct from El Niño interannual variability ( Zhang et al. 1997 ). It has been shown that such a slowly varying pattern of SST anomalies, called the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) for the basinwide pattern ( Power et al. 1999 ) or the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) for the North Pacific part of the pattern ( Mantua et al. 1997

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Justin Sheffield, Suzana J. Camargo, Rong Fu, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Seon Tae Kim, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Richard Seager, Yolande L. Serra, De-Zheng Sun, Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Jin-Yi Yu, Tao Zhang, and Ming Zhao

aspects of North American climate variability, organized by the time scale of the climate feature. Section 3 covers intraseasonal variability with focus on variability in the eastern Pacific Ocean and summer drought over the southern United States and Central America. Atlantic and east Pacific tropical cyclone activity is evaluated in section 4 . Interannual climate variability is assessed in section 5 . Decadal variability and multidecadal trends are assessed in sections 6 and 7 , respectively

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E. Moreno-Chamarro, J. Marshall, and T. L. Delworth

extratropical sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic [Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV)] ( Green et al. 2017 ). Yet, whether this link can ultimately be extended to AMOC multidecadal variability is difficult to answer with the inadequate observational record. Moreover, observational estimates disagree on the influence of the North Pacific SST multidecadal variability [Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)] on the ITCZ position ( Green et al. 2017 ) and the potential linking mechanisms. Here

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