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Tomas Chor, James C. McWilliams, and Marcelo Chamecki

1. Introduction In the atmospheric sciences community, eddy diffusivity models have been invaluable when representing turbulent fluxes ( Ghannam et al. 2017 ). The premise in these models is that the action of eddies can be parameterized as a diffusive process via a flow-dependent eddy diffusivity. This approach [hereafter referred to as gradient transport models (GTM) but also known as K theory; Stull 1988 ] can be written as (1) 〈 w ′ c ′ 〉 = − K ⁡ ( z )   ∂ 〈 C 〉 ∂ z , where C is the

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Alice K. DuVivier and John J. Cassano

of heat from warm North Atlantic surface waters to the atmosphere causes ocean water to sink as part of the MOC, an important component of the global heat budget ( Bacon et al. 2003 ; Pickart et al. 2003 ; Sproson et al. 2008 ; Petersen and Renfrew 2009 ; Våge et al. 2011 ). Strong winds affect the ocean surface by inducing large sensible and latent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere, which decreases ocean water buoyancy and, in the right conditions, can lead to oceanic convection

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Ryuichiro Inoue, Hidekatsu Yamazaki, Fabian Wolk, Tokihiro Kono, and Jiro Yoshida

study the buoyancy flux in the mixed state of turbulence and double diffusion, because both processes contribute to mixing but the buoyancy flux is in opposite directions (turbulence increases potential energy, while double diffusion diminishes potential energy). However, a limited number of measurements attempt to study the buoyancy flux for the mixed state of turbulence and double diffusion (e.g., St.Laurent and Schmitt 1999 ). This study investigates the vertical mixing process in the Mixed

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Bryan K. Woods and Ronald B. Smith

temperature and pressure instruments, and 3) aircraft with a gust probe and inertial platform. The mathematical analysis of aircraft data has advanced also, from using potential temperature to chart streamline deflection to using longitudinal and vertical velocity to compute momentum flux and Fourier cross-spectra to determine dominant wave scales and phase relationships. This history probably begins with Kuettner’s study of stationary updrafts and downdrafts in mountain waves using a sailplane variometer

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David H. Richter and Peter P. Sullivan

1. Introduction For predicting the intensity of tropical cyclones, detailed knowledge of the exchanges of heat, moisture, and momentum at the air–sea interface is essential. While the flux of latent and sensible heat from the ocean provides fuel for the storm, drag on the surface can act to weaken it, and thus a better understanding of the balance between these processes is required if hurricane intensity forecasts are to be improved ( Emanuel 1995 ; NOAA Science Advisory Board 2006 ). Because

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David P. Kratz, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Shashi K. Gupta, Anne C. Wilber, Parnchai Sawaengphokhai, and Greg R. McGarragh

1. Introduction Defining the radiative energy exchange at the top of the earth–atmosphere system and at the earth’s surface has long been identified as critical to understanding climate processes ( Suttles and Ohring 1986 ; GCOS 2003 ) and remains an active focus of research ( Stephens et al. 2012 ; Wild et al. 2013 ). The reflected shortwave (SW) and outgoing longwave (LW) fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) constitute the radiative energy exchange of the entire earth–atmosphere system

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Yanwu Zhang, James G. Bellingham, and Yi Chao

1. Introduction Measurement of fluxes of water mass, heat, chemicals, and biological organisms is fundamental to the understanding of ocean circulation, marine ecology, and global climate ( Dickson et al. 2007 ; Münchow et al. 2006 ; Cuny et al. 2005 ; Ganachaud and Wunsch 2003 ; Tanhua and Olsson 2006 ; Holmes et al. 2000 ; Spurrier and Kjerfve 1988 ; Bryden et al. 2005 ). For example, measurement of mass and heat transports is key to the studies of the California Current System (CCS

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Li-Zhi Shen, Chun-Chieh Wu, and Falko Judt

1. Introduction Intensity and size are the two main characteristics used to describe the damage potential of tropical cyclones (TCs; Marks et al. 1998 ; Wang and Wu 2004 ; Cheng and Wu 2018 , 2020 ). The energy source of TCs is surface heat fluxes ( Riehl 1950 ; Zhang and Emanuel 2016 ), an idea that was cast into a theory called the wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) mechanism ( Emanuel 1986 , 1989 ), which highlights the positive feedback between surface heat fluxes and storm

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Heping Liu, Qianyu Zhang, and Gordon Dowler

albedos (e.g., about 0.06 for open water and 0.08 for vegetated lands) ( Henderson-Sellers 1986 ; Bonan 1995 ). It is known that sensible heat flux H is primarily determined by the air temperature difference between the water surface and the overlying atmosphere as well as the turbulent exchange coefficient. Latent heat flux λE is dependent upon vapor pressure differences between the water–atmosphere interface and the overlying atmosphere as well as the turbulent mixing intensity ( Henderson

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F. Castellví and R. L. Snyder

and large areas of uniform fetch, which are uncommon in many grape production areas.” Because the surface renewal (SR) method may operate close to the canopy ( Paw U et al. 1995 , 2005 ), fetch requirements may be minimized, which makes it a useful micrometeorological method for small grape vineyards where fetch requirements limit the application of other methods. Spano et al. (2000) , Castellví et al. (2002) , and Castellví (2004) have used the SR method to estimate sensible heat flux H

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