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Kevin M. Simmons, Paul Kovacs, and Gregory A. Kopp

think about this input is to approach it from how much of the EF1 and EF2 damage can be mitigated. The baseline assumption is that 73% of the EF1 and EF2 damage is mitigated. But for a 10% reduction in overall damage, only 24% of the EF1 and EF2 damage needs to be mitigated. For the cost of enhanced construction, the baseline number is $1 ft −2 , which is the estimate from the city of Moore homebuilders association and the consulting engineers. To force the analysis to fail, based on that input

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Katie A. Wilson, Pamela L. Heinselman, Patrick S. Skinner, Jessica J. Choate, and Kim E. Klockow-McClain

mode and/or forcing mechanisms responsible for the event. While some of these answers captured elements of the intended response, about a third of participants misinterpreted the graphic and/or question, which was near the maximum percentage of misunderstanding demonstrated in any question ( Fig. 3 ). Notably, the most common error involved an inference of severity that went beyond the presented probability information. The design of the graphics and a deterministic construal error are possible

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Msafiri Yusuph Mkonda, Xinhua He, and Emma Sandell Festin

agricultural sector that employs over 70% of the labor force in most developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa ( Nyong et al. 2007 ; Ifejika Speranza et al. 2010 ; Rao et al. 2011 ; Muller and Shackleton 2014 ).This understanding largely targets the smallholder farmers who are easily affected by local and global environmental changes and weak policy framework. Some scholars and climate practitioners place their trust in scientific analyses and climate modeling as their sole source of climate

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Alexander Hall

large organization, the MO dealt with all other business inquiries in the period in largely the same manner as those from members of the public. That is, that where possible, inquiries were directed to the closest local office, which most commonly in the postwar years was a Royal Air Force Outstation, where the primary role of MO staff on site was collecting observations and giving preflight briefs to aviators. In 1950, 9000 inquiries of this nature were received by telephone at local RAF

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David R. Perkins IV, Kristin Timm, Teresa Myers, and Edward Maibach

weathercasters “regardless of the cause, do you think climate change is happening?” it was given context by referencing the American Meteorological Society (AMS) definition of climate change ( AMS 2020 ): Any systematic change in the long-term statistics of climate elements (such as temperature, pressure, or winds) sustained over several decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural external forcings, such as changes in solar emission or slow changes in the earth’s orbital elements; natural

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Stephen M. Strader, Walker S. Ashley, Thomas J. Pingel, and Andrew J. Krmenec

importance of evidence-based disaster planning . Ann. Emerg. Med. , 47 , 34 – 49 , doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2005.05.009 . 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2005.05.009 Diffenbaugh , N. , M. Scherer , and R. Trapp , 2013 : Robust increases in severe thunderstorm environments in response to greenhouse forcing . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 110 , 16 361 – 16 366 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307758110 . 10.1073/pnas.1307758110 Dixon , P. , and A. Mercer , 2012 : Reply to “Comments on ‘Tornado risk analysis: Is

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Kurt B. Waldman, Noemi Vergopolan, Shahzeen Z. Attari, Justin Sheffield, Lyndon D. Estes, Kelly K. Caylor, and Tom P. Evans

). The hydrological processes were simulated at 3-hourly, 30-m resolution between 1980 and 2016. We used 3-hourly, 5-km meteorological data (Princeton Global Forcing; Sheffield et al. 2006 ); 30-m topography (SRTM; Farr et al. 2007 ); 30-m Landsat-derived land-cover type (GlobeLand; Chen et al. 2014 ); 250-m soil properties (SoilGrids; Hengl et al. 2017 ); 30-m Landsat-derived NDVI (USGS; Roy et al. 2010 ); and 30-m Landsat-derived fraction of water, bare soil, and tree cover (USGS; Hansen et

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Lesley Duxbury

2007, “The Trouble with the Weather: A Southern Response” (available online at ) addressed the weather and climate change as an unpredictable and unstoppable force. There is no shortage of artists engaging with such subjects and ideas. In 2010, the exhibition “ReThink” (available online at ) opens in several Danish museums and galleries. Not only has this series of exhibitions engaged a significant number of

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Corrine Noel Knapp, Shannon M. McNeeley, John Gioia, Trevor Even, and Tyler Beeton

level for sensitive fish species, often forcing curtailing or ceasing of fishing on certain river stretches if stream temperatures are too high. As one fishing guide stated, If the water’s muddy and high in July people aren’t coming out then our season doesn’t start ’til the next month. You know, it just pushes us back and gives us a shorter window of time to get all those trips and make as much money as we can in the summer. Several guides in this sector were also concerned about the shifting

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Ann Bostrom, Rebecca E. Morss, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Julie L. Demuth, Heather Lazrus, and Rebecca Hudson

probability forecasts that describe the probability of tropical storm force (≥34 kt; 1 kt = 0.51 m s −1 ), 58 mph (≥50 kt) and hurricane force (64 kt) winds occurring at individual locations. If you really want to know your risk, that’s the product to go to” (NHC1). Even though this forecaster believes that the probabilistic wind forecasts produced by NHC are more valuable than the cone graphic for evaluating risk, none of the public officials or broadcasters happened to mention these products; they

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