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Virnei Silva Moreira, Luiz Antonio Candido, Debora Regina Roberti, Geovane Webler, Marcelo Bortoluzzi Diaz, Luis Gustavo Gonçalves de Gonçalves, Raphael Pousa, and Gervásio Annes Degrazia

maximizing the infiltration of the water in the soil and, consequently, minimizing the moisture loss through runoff and/or evaporation ( E ). Different techniques to decrease the water use in agriculture and increase the productivity are constantly being developed and tested, including exploring the differences between conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) crop systems. The conventional cropping system, with intense soil disturbance characterized by the use of a plow, can create surface layers

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John W. Recha, Johannes Lehmann, M. Todd Walter, Alice Pell, Louis Verchot, and Mark Johnson

hydrograph separation has been used in hydrological studies of forested and agricultural watersheds in tropical and temperate regions ( Longobardi and Villani 2008 ; Schwartz 2007 ). Two other separation techniques, specifically the WHAT local minimum method and the WHAT one parameter digital filter method ( Lim et al. 2005 ), were used for comparison. The trends in the amount of baseflow and runoff were similar for all the methods, with a variation of up to 12.8% in the final results. Hydrologic

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Brandon L. Parkes, Hannah L. Cloke, Florian Pappenberger, Jeff Neal, and David Demeritt

of between 0.05 and 0.15 m ( Geomatics Group 2011 ). However, the postprocessing required to create the DEM can be problematic in heavily vegetated areas. As a result the RMSE of the DEM is estimated to be 0.18 m ( Mason et al. 2007b ). Neal et al. ( Neal et al. 2013 ) resampled (using the nearest-neighbor technique) the DEM to 5- and 10-m resolutions and found only minor improvements in model performance (<0.02 m RMSE) when running at the higher resolution. This is consistent with a point made

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J. Marshall Shepherd

et al. 2004a ) discuss the implications of urban-induced precipitation on the design of urban drainage systems. Such examples of science knowledge transfer in the civil engineering, water resource, and planning communities must be mirrored in areas related to precision agriculture, transportation systems weather forecasting, and other applications that may be impacted by more frequent or intense urban storms. Even within the recommendations, it is apparent that some investigators are starting to

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Bharat Rastogi, A. Park Williams, Douglas T. Fischer, Sam F. Iacobellis, Kathryn McEachern, Leila Carvalho, Charles Jones, Sara A. Baguskas, and Christopher J. Still

cloud cover from diurnal to interannual scales. We also present a new method to downscale GOES imagery to spatial scales relevant for studying stratus–vegetation interactions by combining satellite imagery with airport cloud height information and a digital elevation model (DEM). The downscaling technique allows for characterizing when stratus clouds intersect with Earth’s surface as fog. 2. Methods 2.1. Site description This study was conducted in the northern Channel Islands off the coast of

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Eugene S. Takle, Daniel A. Rajewski, and Samantha L. Purdy

from which the meteorological tower wake may be influencing measurements (tower-wake area). We apply a 5° wake expansion factor from each leading turbine or groups of turbines to determine the relevant wake angles as described by Barthelmie et al. (2009) and adopted in subsequent wake analysis techniques for measurements taken during the Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX; Takle et al. 2014 ; Rajewski et al. 2013 , 2014 , 2016 ). Wake angles and distances from each grouping of turbines are

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

understanding the combined effects of large-scale (GHG and PDO) and regional-scale (UHI) factors on summer coastal cooling following the methodology developed by Comarazamy et al. (2010 , 2013 ). This approach integrates ground and remote sensing information ( Comarazamy et al. 2010 ) as well as mesoscale atmospheric modeling and statistical techniques ( Comarazamy et al. 2013 ), allowing quantification of the individual and combined contributions of LCLU changes and large-scale forcings to the magnitude

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Ashley E. Van Beusekom, Grizelle González, and Maria M. Rivera

g . Periodic component fluctuations are not always constant over time so using intrablock methods instead of trying to remove the periodic variation with functional adjustment is the preferred technique here ( Zhang and Qi 2005 ). Sen’s slope estimator Q modified for periodic variation is the median of all pairs in all periodic components, The SMK test was performed for each site and the RSMK test was performed for northeastern PR as a whole, all for each of the six derived statistics (mean

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Jacqueline J. Shinker and Patrick J. Bartlein

) makes possible the process-analysis approach to describing variability in the modern climate system. The data produced by the reanalysis project consist of output from a three-dimensional forecasting model that is initialized with the observational data interpolated onto a global system of grids. Output from the forecasting model is a simulated dataset produced at 6-hourly, daily, and monthly time steps (Kalnay et al. 1995; Kistler et al. 2001 ). We use monthly data from the reanalysis project

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Philip Potter, Navin Ramankutty, Elena M. Bennett, and Simon D. Donner

). Chemical fertilizers are a major facet of the green revolution’s package of yield-increasing advances and techniques ( Mann 1999 ). While manures are a traditional source of soil nutrients on farms, chemical fertilizers became widely available only in the mid-twentieth century ( Frink et al. 1999 ). The development of Haber–Bosch ammonia synthesis and the worldwide extraction of phosphate from rock greatly increased the supply of these agricultural inputs, which have been harnessed around the world to

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