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Tomohiko Tomita, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Ryo Akiyoshi, and Yoshiyuki Imasato

1. Introduction One aspect of the urban climate known as a heat island has become a problem in some cities with global warming. As an example, there is some anxiety that infectious diseases, through mosquitoes that survived warmer winters, would expand into subtropical or extratropical cities. Kumamoto is a typical medium-sized, midlatitude city that is located in southwestern Japan (32.81°N, 130.71°E, 38 m; Fig. 1 ). The population is about 660 000, making it the third largest

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Fred M. Vukovich and J. W. Dunn

VOL. 17, NO. 11 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY NOVEMBER 1978A Theoretical Study of the St. Louis Heat Island: Some Parameter Variations FaED M. VUKOVICH AND J. W. DUNNResearch Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709(Manuscript received 16 January 1978, in final form 1 August 1978)ABSTRACT A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the more important parameters affecting the urbanheat island

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Jack H. Shreffler

1512 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME 18- Heat Island Convergence in St. Louis during Calm Periods JACK H. SHREFFLERtMeteorology and Assessment Division, Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory. Research Triangle Park, NC 27711(Manuscript received 16 April 1979, in final form 13 September 1979) ABSTRACT. From Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS tower data

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Xiaoxue Wang, Yuguo Li, Kai Wang, Xinyan Yang, and Pak Wai Chan

and Oke (1999) . It is further assumed that the city has an elevation of 50 m and that the city’s area is as shown in Fig. 5 . A volume heat source was considered in the whole porous medium ( Hu et al. 2012 ). Fig . 5. A sketch of the computational domain for this case—a city-scale CFD. The flow is expected to typify urban heat island circulation (UHIC; Lu et al. 1997a , b ), which typically forms during windless sunny days under two more preconditions: a stable PBL and a well-mixed convective

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N. J. Tapper, P. D. Tyson, I. F. Owens, and W. J. Hastie

APRIL 1981 N.J. TAPPER, P. D. TYSON, I. F. OWENS AND W. J. HASTIE 365Modeling the Winter 'Urban Heat Island Over Christchurch, New ZealandN. J. TAPPER, P. D. TYSONl, I. F. OWENS AND W. J. HASTIEDepartment ~f Geography, University of Canterbury, New Zealand(Manuscript received 30 December 1979, in final form 29 September 1980)ABSTRACT An energy balance model is presented and tested against surface temperature fields observed

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Zhi-Hua Wang, Elie Bou-Zeid, Siu Kui Au, and James A. Smith

. g. Practical implication of parameter sensitivity A direct consequence of anthropogenic stressors on urban areas, as manifested by the turbulent energy exchange and urban surface temperatures, is the so-called urban heat island (UHI) effect ( Oke 1982 ). One important implication of this sensitivity study is related to the determination of strategies to mitigate urban heat island intensity. Oleson et al. (2010) investigated the effects of white roofs on UHI mitigation. They found that the

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Winston T. L. Chow and Bohumil M. Svoma

1. Introduction Urbanization alters surface land-use/land cover (LULC) characteristics that, in turn, affect several important factors controlling near-surface and surface climates. An extensively researched example of this is the urban heat island (UHI)—the phenomenon of warmer urban environments relative to their local surroundings ( Landsberg 1981 ). The UHI mainly arises from surface energy balance alterations due to LULC change ( Oke 1982 ), and its intensity is a function of several

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D. B. Olfe and R. L. Lee

1374 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPttERiC SCIENCES Vo~.n~aE28Linearized Calculations of Urban Heat Island Convection Effects D. B. OL~E aim R. L. LEEDept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Sd~nces, University of California, San Diego(Manuscript received 22 February 1.971, in revised form 15 luly 1971)ABSTRACT Steady, ]inearized flow calculations are carried out to estimate vertical temperature profiles

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Leonard O. Myrup

908JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 8A Numerical Model of the Urban Heat IslandLEONARD 0. MYRUPDept. of Agricultural J~ngineering, University of California, Davis(Manuscript received 24 July 1969, in revised form 15 August 1969)ABSTRACTThe heat island phenomenon is surveyed. Existing theories are criticized as being excessively qualitative.A general purpose, numerical energy budget model is described and applied to the urban atmosphere.Calculations for several special cases as well as a

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Young-Hee Ryu and Jong-Jin Baik

1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) is the most well documented example of anthropogenic climate modification ( Arnfield 2003 ). Numerous studies have reported that the urban air temperature can be 1°–3°C higher than the rural or surrounding air temperature on average (e.g., Oke 1981 ; Morris et al. 2001 ; Bottyan and Unger 2003 ; Kim and Baik 2004 ; Grimmond 2007 ). Some studies have reported cases of very strong UHI intensity (e.g., Klysik and Fortuniak 1999 ; Fung et al. 2009

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