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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

from the 2010 Census data are no longer comparable. However, extending the trend line out to future years does provide a reasonable basis to drawn general conclusions about likely future county level social vulnerabilities for the study area. d. Spatial measures of hazard exposure Climate-sensitive hazards, especially those related to water (or the lack of water) are among the most costly threats that face the United States. In fact, tropical storms/hurricanes, heat waves/drought, and flooding top

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Tony Huiquan Zhang

comfort and weather comfort measurements. Experts agree the following variables contribute to an overall comfort level: air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity, water vapor pressure in ambient air, the individual’s heat production, and his/her clothing adaptation ( Fanger 1970 ; Nicol and Humphreys 2002 ; Parsons 2014 ). Also, precipitation, types of weather (especially extreme weather conditions), and specific microsettings such as buildings, streets, and crowds (of special relevance to

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P. Zion Klos, John T. Abatzoglou, Alycia Bean, Jarod Blades, Melissa A. Clark, Megan Dodd, Troy E. Hall, Amanda Haruch, Philip E. Higuera, Joseph D. Holbrook, Vincent S. Jansen, Kerry Kemp, Amber Lankford, Timothy E. Link, Troy Magney, Arjan J. H. Meddens, Liza Mitchell, Brandon Moore, Penelope Morgan, Beth A. Newingham, Ryan J. Niemeyer, Ben Soderquist, Alexis A. Suazo, Kerri T. Vierling, Von Walden, and Chelsea Walsh

stream temperature may be of concern, a general warming trend is of much less perceived importance to end users than issues of water limitation within our case example. However, in other regions (e.g., desert cities with urban heat islands), results of such analysis might reveal temperature increase as being of high perceived importance. Indicators high in both perceived importance and biophysical complexity (fire and productivity related) are likely of higher perceived importance to people because

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Daniel Tobin, Rama Radhakrishna, Allison Chatrchyan, and Shorna B. Allred

, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia, and Vermont) and the District of Columbia. The Northeast Climate Hub sought out these land-grant universities as institutions with expertise in conducting research, designing programs based on research findings, and delivering those programs to target audiences. This current study is part of a larger regional needs assessment on behalf of the Northeast Climate Hub. Agriculture in the northeastern United States is

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Ross N. Hoffman, Peter Dailey, Susanna Hopsch, Rui M. Ponte, Katherine Quinn, Emma M. Hill, and Brian Zachry

atmospheric winds and in the heat and freshwater fluxes at the ocean surface and from rivers. Therefore, correlations might be expected between the seasonal cycle of sea level and the seasonal cycle of storms. Here we assume that the seasonal cycle is not changing in time. High-frequency processes. A number of processes affect sea level on submonthly time scales. These include synoptic weather and the short period tides. Storm surge associated with tropical and extratropical cyclones has clear and

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Christopher A. Fiebrich, Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Phillip B. Chilson, and Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little

environmental benefits as well as possible beneficiaries of atmospheric profiles from a 3D mesonet that might soon be integrated into the operational data streams of surface mesonets across the United States. Other aspects of economics related solely to technological sustainability of WxUAS are not addressed here. 2. History of UAS use in meteorology for profiling The National Weather Service radiosonde network consists of 92 observation locations across North America and the Pacific Islands that take twice

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Megan L. White and J. Anthony Stallins

.1002/2016GL070375 Zhang , D.-L. , Y.-X. Shou , R. R. Dickerson , and F. Chen , 2011 : Impact of upstream urbanization on the urban heat island effects along the Washington–Baltimore corridor . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 50 , 2012 – 2029 , doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05008.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05008.1

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Frauke Hoss and Paul Fischbeck

survey among farmers by to Hu et al. (2006) and Artikov et al. (2006) . Furthermore, questions to assess numeracy on the subjective numeracy scale as constructed by Fagerlin et al. (2007) were added to the survey. The complete questionnaire is available in the online supplemental material ( section A ). To account for the diversity of natural hazards in a large country like the United States, six hazards were included in the study: flash flooding, river flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, heat

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Lawrence C. Hamilton

. , Stewart T. G. , and Evans D. J. A. , 2008 : A millennial-scale record of Arctic Ocean sea ice variability and the demise of the Ellesmere Island ice shelves . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L19502 , doi:10.1029/2008GL034470 . Gerlach, T. , 2011 : Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide . Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union , 92 , 201 – 208 . Hamilton, L. C. , 2008 : Who cares about polar regions? Results from a survey of U.S. public opinion . Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. , 40 , 671

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Peter N. Peregrine

-019-02380-2 . 10.1007/s10584-019-02380-2 Harrington , J. , and M. Gelfand , 2014 : Tightness–looseness across the 50 United States . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 111 , 7990 – 7995 , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1317937111 . 10.1073/pnas.1317937111 Holling , C. S. , L. Gunderson , and G. Peterson , 2002 : Sustainability and panarchy. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems , L. Gunderson and C. S. Holling, Eds., Island Press, 63–102 . Horney , J. , D

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