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W. M. Washington and S. M. Daggupaty

) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Researck (NCAR)'has been used to simulate the large-scale features of the Asian-African summer monsoon. The model has 6vertical layers of 3-km thickness with a 2-- horizontal latitude-longitude grid. The physical processes incorporated are solar and infrared radiation, with cloudiness explicitly calculated from a model-generatedrelative humidity distribution. The latent heat released from precipitation is derived from stable liftingand cumulus convection

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Saïdou Moustapha Sall and Henri Sauvageot

profiles obtained by radiosoundes and retrieved from the NCEP reanalyses over West Africa. The reanalysis provides air temperature, geopotential altitude, as well as the three components of wind velocity for 17 pressure levels in a grid mesh of 2.5° × 2.5°. It also provides the relative humidity between 1000 and 300 hPa. The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) satellite series is also

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D. S. Gutzler and K. C. Mo

field are presented fordifferent seasons and tropospheric pressure levels. Values are generally much higher than those calculatedfrom time series of outgoing infrared radiation or eddy,heat fluxes. The largest one-day lag autocorrelationvalues are observed over the polar regions and eastern oceans. Well-defined minima exist offthe east coastsof Asia and North America. The minima are most distinct in winter, and are shitter northward and weakerduring summerl Otherwise, the pattern does not change

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Tzvi Gal-Chen

measurements of (i)emitted thermal radiation by microwave and infrared radiometers and (ii) horizontal winds by Doppler radars(or lidars). The problem of obtaining a temperature profile from measured radiances and an inversion of theradiative transfer equation is known to be ill posed/cooditiooed. For a meaningful inversion additional information is needed. In thh work wc utilize two sourees of information and two physical relationships which are:1) measured radiances at various frequencies; 2) the

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J. A. Curry and G. F. Herman

and infrared radiation budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1251-1261.Kalnay, E., and W. Baker, 1984: Analyzed and diagnostic fields in the GLAS III-b analys!s. Global Wea. Exp. Newslett. 3, 29-31. [Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S. GARP Comm. T. O'Neill, Ed.]Kuo, H. L., 1974: Further studies of the parameterization of the influence of cumulus convection in large-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1232-1240.Loomis, E., 1868: A Treatise on Meteorology. Harper & Bros., 350 Pp.Lorenc, A. C., 1981: A global

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Donald W. Hillger and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

atmosphere. Appl. Opt., 9, 1993-1999. , and H. B. Howell, 1971: Vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor from satellite infrared spectrometer measure ments. J. Appl. Meteor., 10, 1026-1034. , and P. K. Rao, 1973: The determination of surface temperature from satellite "window" radiation measure ments. Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Scienc~ and Industry, Vol. 4, Reinhold, 2251-2257. , P. G. Abel, H. M. Woolf, A. W. McCulloch and B. J. Johnson, 1975: The high resolution

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Vance Moyer, James R. Scoggins, Nine-Min Chou, and Gregory S. Wilson

HighResolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and Scanning Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) radiancesare assessed by comparison with similar dat~ from weighted means of the rawinsonde observations (raobs)that bracketed the time of the satellite orbit across the east central United States for a case study on 25August 1975. With notable exceptions, the HIRS-SCAMS temperature profiles are fairly good approximations of the weighted-mean raob profiles; those exceptions occur near the surface and near the

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Abram R. Jacobson and Mathew J. Heavner

seen in the VHF but may sometimes precipitate a lower-frequency radiation called a narrow bipolar event (NBE; Jacobson 2003a , b ; Jacobson and Light 2003 ; Le Vine 1980 ; Light and Jacobson 2002 ; Smith et al. 1999 ; Willett et al. 1989 ). The CID emissions are the most intense thunderstorm emissions in the VHF and have been routinely detected from the ground ( Thomas et al. 2001 ), from low-earth orbit ( Jacobson and Light 2003 ; Light and Jacobson 2002 ; Massey and Holden 1995 ; Massey

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James P. Kossin

semidiurnal oscillation of T BB above the central hurricane convection. 2. Data and method of analysis The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service–Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (NESDIS–CIRA) tropical cyclone infrared satellite imagery archive contains half-hourly, 4-km horizontal resolution, geostationary IR images of tropical cyclones that occurred since the onset of the 1995 hurricane season ( Zehr 2000 ). The majority of archive images are from the

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Jian-Jian Wang and Yi-Leng Chen

characterized by a nocturnal inversionabout 50-150 m above the .ground, with a strength of 1-4 K. The stable downslope flow layer usually extendsabove the nocturnal inversion with a nocturnal jet beneath the inversion. For rain cases, the nocturnal inversionand the nocturnal jet are weaker with a deeper stable downslope flow than clear cases because of rain evaporationaloft, reduced infrared radiation heat loss at the lowest levels, and vertical mixing associated with precipitation.After sunrise the

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