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Stanley Gedzelman, James Lawrence, John Gamache, Michael Black, Edward Hindman, Robert Black, Jason Dunion, Hugh Willoughby, and Xiaoping Zhang

-Doppler radar analysis of the azimuthally averaged wind field of the innermost 30 km. Isotope ratios in Hurricane Olivia (1994) were higher during a time of intense radial and vertical circulation that followed a burst of rapid deepening on 24 September and lower during a period of weaker mean updrafts as the storm began filling on 25 September. Simulations suggest that isotope ratios at flight level increase for several hours following intensification of the vertical and radial circulation as snow and ice

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Rosario Q. Iannone, Daniele Romanini, Samir Kassi, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Erik R. Th Kerstel

laboratory-based isotope analysis by IRMS (or a laser-based technique). For tropospheric and ecological measurements, such an approach has been used by Helliker et al. (2002) and West et al. (2006) , respectively. Franz and Röckmann (2004) have shown that this approach can be successful, if executed with extreme care, even for studies at very low water mixing ratio, such as encountered high in the troposphere and in the lower stratosphere. They modified a continuous-flow IRMS system to be able to

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Zhongyin Cai and Lide Tian

Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant XDB03030100), and CAS Hundred Talents Program. REFERENCES Adler , R. F. , and Coauthors , 2003 : The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–present) . J. Hydrometeor. , 4 , 1147 – 1167 , doi: 10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2 . Aggarwal , P. K. , K. Fröhlich , K. M. Kulkarni , and L. L. Gourcy , 2004 : Stable isotope evidence for moisture sources in the Asian summer monsoon under

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David Noone and I. Simmonds

covariant analysis. 2. Isotopes in the Melbourne University GCM (MUGCM) MUGCM is a spectral primitive equation model of the atmosphere based on the model of Bourke et al. (1977) and McAvaney et al. (1978) . Since its inception in the early 1980s there have been systematic improvements and updates to both the dynamic representation and the physical packages, yielding the present “Version 9.” MUGCM has been used extensively for climate studies (e.g., Law and Simmonds 1996 ; Walsh et al. 2000

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B. Federer, N. Brichet, and J. Jouzel

processes which modify the isotope content of drops even if this term is negligible in the rainwater mass balance. This isotopic exchange term due to diffusion, P'~r, has been calculated considering the drop size spectrum and the fact that different drop sizes have different &amp;values (see Appendix 2). In this treatment, the parameter n is introduced to describe the distribution of the O's as a function of r. The study of individual drops has shown that 0 &lt; n &lt; 1. A sensitivity analysis of n was

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A. P. Ballantyne, P. A. Baker, J. Q. Chambers, R. Villalba, and J. Argollo

from the Volcan Granada subpopulation. From this subpopulation, we selected one long-lived individual for our isotopic analysis that was highly correlated with the regional climate reconstruction ( R 2 = 0.90), suggesting that this individual was representative of the larger population. Unfortunately, because of the thin annual growth bands in Polylepis , there was only enough material for δ 18 O cx analysis and not δ 13 C cx . The single Tachigali sample from Manaus was thinly sliced

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Naoyuki Kurita and Hiroyuki Yamada

isotopic features that occurred during the analysis period. In section 4 , we discuss the roles of local moisture recycling in each type of precipitation. In section 5 , we provide a summary. 2. Data a. Study site Intensive observations of land–atmosphere interaction were conducted from 13 to 27 August 2004 at site BJ near Naqu (31.29°N, 92.04°E, 4580 m MSL) at the middle of the Tibetan Plateau (see Fig. 1 ) as part of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asian–Australian Monsoon Project

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Zhongyin Cai and Lide Tian

precipitation analysis (1979–present) . J. Hydrometeor. , 4 , 1147 – 1167 , doi: 10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2 . Araguás-Araguás , L. , K. Fröehlich , and K. Rozanski , 1998 : Stable isotope composition of precipitation over Southeast Asia . J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 28 721 – 28 742 , doi: 10.1029/98JD02582 . Bradley , R. S. , M. Vuille , D. Hardy , and L. G. Thompson , 2003 : Low latitude ice cores record Pacific sea surface temperatures . Geophys. Res. Lett

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Stanley David Gedzelman and James R. Lawrence

andhence, useless for most meteorological processes. Toverify that the models simulate the physical processesinvolving isotopes well, it is necessary to test their performance on individual weather events using isotopicdatasets such as are described in this paper. The paper is organized as follows: the isotopic, datacollection and analysis is briefly described in section2. The general principles relating isotopic content withmeteorological structure are discussed in the contextof the isotope models

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Ronald B. Smith and Jason P. Evans

of the very sparse data network in the region, we focus on the following new datasets to assist in the analysis of local processes: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery of cloud patterns, National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis of approaching wind and humidity, and isotope data from stream and sapwood water. In addition, we use the new linear model of

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