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Bradford S. Barrett, Dominique Bastine Krieger, and Caroline P. Barlow

. Chiu, L. , Liu Z. , Rui H. , and Teng W. , 2006 : TRMM data and access tools . Earth Science Satellite Remote Sensing, J. Qu et al., Eds., Vol. 2, Data, Computational Processing, and Tools, Springer and Tsinghua University Press, 202–219 . Cox, J. A. W. , Steenburgh W. J. , Kingsmill D. E. , Shafer J. C. , Colle B. A. , Bousquet O. , Smull B. F. , and Cai H. , 2005 : The kinematic structure of a Wasatch Mountain winter storm during IPEX IOP3 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133

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Riccardo Rigon, Giacomo Bertoldi, and Thomas M. Over

models ( Beven 2000 ) have been implemented to predict the lateral distribution of water, ranging from more conceptualized descriptions (e.g., Beven and Kirkby 1979 ; Franchini and Pacciani 1991 ) to fully distributed approaches, such as the Système Hydrologique Européen (SHE; Abbott et al. 1986 ), topographic kinematic approximation and integration model (TOPKAPI; Ciarapica and Todini 2002 ), THALES ( Grayson et al. 1992 ), and others ( Vertessy et al. 1993 ; Garrote and Bras 1995 ; Bronstert

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Philip Marsh and John R. Gyakum

was developed for Environment Canada's operational radars in the southern Mackenzie basin, while the IPIX radar was used to provide datasets on the detailed kinematic description (e.g., vertical structure, wind fields) of the cloud systems in the central MRB. Numerical weather prediction: Gridded model data from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) operational forecast model for the CAGES period were archived ( MacKay et al. 2003 ). This archive included higher-resolution (10 km

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Shuzhou Wang and Yaoming Ma

parameterization scheme in this study. Table 1. Flux parameterization schemes for kB −1 . The Prandtl number Pr = 0.71, k = 0.4, ν is the fluid kinematical viscosity, α = 0.52, β = 7.2, and Re * = z 0m u * / ν . b. Determination of excess resistance to heat transfer The excess resistance to heat transfer kB −1 is used to parameterize the sensible heat exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. In past decades, the parameterization of kB −1 has attracted a number of theoretical and

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F. Martin Ralph, Paul J. Neiman, David E. Kingsmill, P. Ola G. Persson, Allen B. White, Eric T. Strem, Edmund D. Andrews, and Ronald C. Antweiler

. All of the stream gauges in the Santa Cruz Mountains have 45–50 yr of records dating back to between 1950 and 1955. Many other operational observing systems were also used: hourly surface observations from airports and buoys, 3-hourly data from ships (sites shown in Fig. 3 ), 12-hourly thermodynamic and kinematic profiles from rawinsondes, and the WSR-88D at Mount Umunhum (MUX) near San Francisco monitored the evolution of landfalling precipitation features and their associated radial

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Paul J. Neiman, F. Martin Ralph, Benjamin J. Moore, and Robert J. Zamora

between SBJs, ARs, and the precipitation they generated across the northern CV and Sierra foothills. Neiman et al. (2013a) utilized a wind profiler at Sloughhouse, California (SHS; Fig. 1 , Table 1 ), as the primary observational anchor to identify the strongest SBJ events over the northern CV during a multiyear period to investigate mean kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the composite SBJ and simultaneously occurring AR and to ascertain the composite orographic precipitation

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Barbara Turato, Oreste Reale, and Franco Siccardi

peaks occur at the end of October), but they could be concurring agents of a complex synergistic mechanism. 3. Moisture sources for the Piedmont 2000 flood event a. Method To investigate surface evaporative sources contributing to the flood event, we adopt a kinematic quasi-isentropic trajectory technique documented in Dirmeyer and Brubacker (1999) ; used by Reale et al. (2001) , Brubacker et al. (2001) , and Burde and Zangvil (2001a , b ); and based on the fully implicit isentropic algorithm of

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Masahiro Ryo, Oliver C. Saavedra Valeriano, Shinjiro Kanae, and Tinh Dang Ngoc

the four precipitation datasets. The DHM employed is the geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM; developed by Yang et al. 2002 ; see Fig. 3 and appendix for details). Hydrological processes such as precipitation, canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, percolation, and groundwater flow are simulated. The discharge is computed with the kinematic wave equation. The computational grid size was set to 500 m and the unit time step was set to 6 h in order to include the

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Sheng Wang, Suxia Liu, Xingguo Mo, Bin Peng, Jianxiu Qiu, Mingxin Li, Changming Liu, Zhonggen Wang, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein

include 1) a multilayer canopy radioactive transfer module; 2) a two-source soil–canopy energy balance module; 3) a multiple-layer soil water and energy transfer module; 4) a modified variable infiltration capacity scheme for runoff generation; 5) the degree-day factor method for snow and ice melt computation; and 6) the kinematic wave scheme for streamflow routing. The VIP model has been applied and validated extensively in basins across China ( Mo and Liu 2001 ; Mo et al. 2004 , 2014 ; Liu et al

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Hoang Tran, Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Konstantinos Andreadis

Storage (CREST; Wang et al. 2011 ) as a water balance model, the kinematic wave routing ( Lighthill and Whitham 1955 ) as a routing model, and the simple mass-conserving inundation as an inundation model. The mass-conserving inundation model is a simple model that computes inundation based on stream flows and cross-sectional area and has been used widely in many studies ( Bates and De Roo 2000 ; Horritt and Bates 2002 ; Bates et al. 2003 ; Chen et al. 2009 ). Computing cross-sectional area in mass

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