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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

large cities. Other European scholars including Kratzer (1937 , 1956 ) supported Horton’s observations, and Landsberg (1956) further affirmed the hypothesis. A landmark set of experiments, including the Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment (METROMEX; Braham 1981 ; Changnon 1981 ), executed in the 1970s confirmed that cities modify the spatiotemporal distribution of rainfall. However, Lowry (1998) challenged some of the underlying findings and experimental designs. In response to Lowry

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

1. The continua of the atmosphere and history The atmosphere and history can both be viewed from a common perspective. Both are continua with a multitude of processes acting simultaneously and at a variety of time and space scales. To make sense of either the atmosphere or history, we humans have the habit of defining categories to provide focus—be they atmospheric scales, physical processes, theory, and observations, or historically defined separations between epochs (e.g., discovery of

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