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Pierre-Marie Poulain, Riccardo Gerin, Elena Mauri, and Romain Pennel

) downwind is the velocity difference projected in the downwind direction and | W | is the wind speed. 3. Data and methods a. Drifter designs CODE drifters were developed by Davis (1985) in the early 1980s to measure the currents in the first meter under the sea surface. They were mostly used in coastal areas and in marginal seas such as the Gulf of Mexico ( Ohlmann et al. 2001 ; Ohlmann and Niiler 2005 ; LaCasce and Ohlmann 2003 ) and the Mediterranean Sea ( Poulain 1999 , 2001 ; Poulain and

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A. Bargagli, A. Carillo, G. Pisacane, P. M. Ruti, M. V. Struglia, and N. Tartaglione

Venice and of the state of the Mediterranean Sea, which has been recently developed at the National Environmental and Energy Agency (ENEA). The operative integrated system consists of a limited area model (the Bologna Limited Area Model, BOLAM), coupled with a wave model (WAM) and a high-resolution shallow water model (the two-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model, POM-2D) of the northern Adriatic Sea. Both BOLAM and WAM cover the whole Mediterranean basin. The atmospheric model is run over a wider

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A. Romanou, G. Tselioudis, C. S. Zerefos, C-A. Clayson, J. A. Curry, and A. Andersson

variability of the regional water budget, it is important to resolve all components of that budget as well as the variability of the atmospheric processes that affect those components. In the Mediterranean region, freshwater fluxes at the sea surface [i.e., the difference between evaporation and precipitation ( E − P ) provide the major source of water to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle ( Mariotti et al. 2002 ). Long-term variability of E − P over the Mediterranean Sea will determine to a large

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Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva, F. Javier Soto-Navarro, and Jesús García-Lafuente

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 1 ), a marginal basin located across a dynamic border that separates two different climatic regions (Europe and North Africa), extends over 3000 km in longitude and over 1500 km in latitude with an area of 2.5 × 10 12 m 2 , and it connects with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the Black Sea through the Turkish Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits. Semi-enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean are suitable for the

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I. Gertman, N. Pinardi, Y. Popov, and A. Hecht

1. Introduction During the last 15 years of the twentieth century, observations have revealed that the Aegean Sea could be a source of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water, even a larger one than the most abundant source known to be located in the southern Adriatic Sea ( Roether et al. 1996 ; Klein et al. 1999 ; Lascaratos et al. 1999 ). A comprehensive analysis of the southern Aegean Sea (Sea of Crete; Fig. 1 ) hydrological data and atmospheric conditions over the eastern Mediterranean Sea

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Xiao-Hai Yan, Young-Heon Jo, W. Timothy Liu, and Ming-Xia He

1. Introduction One of the most interesting and prominent features of the North Atlantic Ocean is the salt tongues originating from an exchange flow between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar. The Mediterranean outflow through the strait is denser than Atlantic water because of its higher salt content. Evaporation in the Mediterranean Sea raises the salinity to around 38.4 psu, as compared with 36.4 psu in the eastern North Atlantic. After leaving the strait

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R. Romero and K. Emanuel

” cyclone development over the Mediterranean Sea. Cavicchia et al. (2014b) reproduced for the Mediterranean the aforementioned analysis of Zahn and von Storch (2010) ; that is, they used a single GCM–RCM couple but three future emission scenarios and found that the projected effect of climate change on medicanes is a decreased frequency at the end of the century and a tendency toward a moderate increase of intensity with respect to the results nested within reanalysis data. Again based on a single

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Peter Brandt, Angelo Rubino, Dmitry V. Sein, Burkard Baschek, Alfredo Izquierdo, and Jan O. Backhaus

1. Introduction Through the Strait of Gibraltar Atlantic Ocean water flows, in the near-surface layer, toward the Mediterranean Sea basin. There, this water is transformed into saltier water, which eventually leaves the Mediterranean through the same strait in the near bottom layer. Changes in the water mass characteristics in the Atlantic and/or Mediterranean waters flowing through the Strait of Gibraltar, that may result from different variations in the two neighboring basins, may profoundly

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Pierre-Marie Poulain, Milena Menna, and Elena Mauri

frequently due to limited resources, drifter datasets are usually gappy in both space and time. In particular, the temporal distribution of the data can be very intermittent. This is even more true for the entire Mediterranean Sea, which has been sampled sporadically by drifters since the mid-1980s. The main consequence is that a statistical description of the surface circulation, due to the nonuniform sampling in space and time, can be quite biased and strongly dependent on the specific data

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Ana M. Mancho, Emilio Hernández-García, Des Small, Stephen Wiggins, and Vicente Fernández

field of the western Mediterranean Sea, obtained from a three-dimensional model simulation under climatological atmospheric forcing. Our aim is, first, to find the location and nature of the Lagrangian structures associated with the so-called Balearic Current that serve to maintain the North Balearic Front. And, second, to show that transport mechanisms, in particular the so-called turnstile mechanism previously identified in abstract dynamical systems ( Channon and Lebowitz 1980 ; Bartlett 1982

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