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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

between the desiccation of supercooled water through ice growth and precipitation, and the generation of liquid water by ascent, radiative cooling, turbulent fluxes, and large-scale moisture advection. The phase transitions between water vapor and solid condensate are important to represent in models because this process impacts the glaciation times and, therefore, the cloud lifetimes, optical properties, and precipitation. However, this is challenging because of the unresolved temperature and

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Roger Marchand

Observation Mission–Water ( GCOM-W1 ), form the satellite afternoon constellation or A-Train. 2 In this chapter we summarize results from a variety of satellite cloud validation studies. Observations at the ARM sites have also made important contributions in validating surface and atmospheric properties such as surface radiation (e.g., Charlock and Alberta 1996 ), surface albedo (e.g., Jin et al. 2003 ; Trishchenko et al. 2008 ), microwave emissivity and soil moisture (e.g., Lin and Minnis 2000

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

. Observations also showed that the latent and sensible heat fluxes in the COPS domain were driven primarily by vegetation rather than by soil moisture, which was erroneously serving as the dominant driver of these fluxes in mesoscale models. b. The study of aerosol indirect effects in China The scientific rationale for the AMF1 deployment in China evolved from curious satellite observations. Evidently, liquid clouds in southeastern China contained much more liquid water than liquid clouds with the same

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

summer of 1979. Part I: Precipitation and kinematic analyses . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 111 , 922 – 944 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0922:TLSCAH>2.0.CO;2 . Luo , H. , and M. Yanai , 1984 : The large-scale circulation and heat sources over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas during the early summer of 1979. Part II: Heat and moisture budgets . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 966 – 989 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<0966:TLSCAH>2.0.CO;2 . Luo , J. , and G. L. Stephens , 2006 : An

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Ulrich Schumann and Andrew J. Heymsfield

conditions ( Busen and Schumann 1995 ). In the interior of the well-mixed plume, condensation starts many wing spans behind the engine ( Schumann et al. 1996 ; Paoli and Shariff 2016 ). Outside the plume center, mixing proceeds far quicker, leaving less time for condensing water during liquid supersaturation. Ice particles at the outer edge of contrails experience higher relative humidity and less competition for the available moisture than in the center, thereby getting larger than in the contrail

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Kerry Emanuel

cumulus cell must win; rather, we should consider the two as supporting one another—the cumulus cell by supplying the heat energy for driving the depression, and the depression by producing the low-level convergence of moisture into the cumulus cell. The key feedback here is between the frictionally induced convergence and the release of latent heat. The mathematical innovation was to specify the vertical distribution of latent heat release and relate its magnitude to low-level moisture convergence

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

characterized by greater-than-normal SST in the equatorial eastern and central tropical Pacific, relaxed trade winds on the equator in the west-central Pacific, and an eastward shift in the climatological mean precipitation from the Maritime Continent to the central Pacific. Note that the maximum zonal wind (stress) anomalies are collocated with the maximum zonal gradient in anomalous SST and with the maximum precipitation anomaly—although the latter is due to anomalous moisture flux convergence primarily

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

skin or surface UHI, the canopy layer (above the ground) UHI, and the boundary layer UHI. Over the years, it became clear to researchers that these heat islands are different. For example, the surface heat island magnitude peaks during the afternoon hours, whereas the canopy layer heat island peaks at night or during early morning hours. As research evolved, it became apparent that some cities may also exhibit a deficit in moisture referred to as the urban dry island ( Hage 1975 ; Wang and Gong

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

meteorology, above-cloud moisture, and SSTs were to be developed to account for the impacts of meteorology that can confound derived relationships in observational studies. However, a persistent problem with these correlative studies is the mutual exclusivity of aerosol and cloud satellite retrievals and the lack of account of the relative vertical profile of aerosol and cloud. IPCC (2007) and Forster et al. (2007) recognized that the growing number of different aerosol species that were being

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

higher cloud tops. Given the complexity of the system it is possible that some of these responses occur in different cloud systems, and at different stages of cloud system evolution. Satellite studies seem to confirm this picture by showing a correlation between cloud-top height and aerosol loading (e.g., Koren et al. 2005 ). Concerns about potential “false correlation” have been raised because higher cloud tops often occur in the presence of higher instability and higher moisture, and therefore

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