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Mark A. Miller, Mary Jane Bartholomew, and R. Michael Reynolds

distribution, wind forcing, and the directional wave field. The motion stability will change slowly over hours or days, and more suddenly when the ship changes direction abruptly. Handheld sun photometers operated on ships rely on the human operator for orientation and stabilization, while the FRSR relies on careful monitoring of ship motion and compensation for it in the radiation measurements. There are several different methods of monitoring platform motion ranging from a gyroscope to fluid-based pitch

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Steven M. Babin, Robert E. Miller, and John R. Rowland

. Acoust. Soc. Am., 40, 148-159.Hinze, J. O., 1975: Turbulence, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, 226-231.Kerr, D. E., 1988: Propagation of Short Radio Waves. Peninsula Publishing, 14 pp.List, R. J., 1984: Smithsoniun Meteorological Tables, Smithsonian Institution Press, 265 pp.Little, C. G., 1969: Acoustic methods for the remote probing of the lower atmosphere. Proc. IEEE, 57, 571-578.Neff, W. D., 1975: Quantitative evaluation of acoustic echoes from the planetary boundary layer. NOAA Tech. Rep. ERL 322

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Timothy A. Bonin, Brian J. Carroll, R. Michael Hardesty, W. Alan Brewer, Kristian Hajny, Olivia E. Salmon, and Paul B. Shepson

temperature, moisture, and momentum in the lower atmosphere, which are imperative for accurate forecasts from NWP output. The parameterization of planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes and the vertical extent of mixing in NWP models affects predictions of severe storms ( Cohen et al. 2015 ); cloud cover, which is important for solar power production ( Cintineo et al. 2014 ); and the mean wind through entrainment at the top of the mixed layer ( Tennekes and Driedonks 1981 ). Additionally, a small daytime

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Jinbo Wang, Lee-Lueng Fu, Hector S. Torres, Shuiming Chen, Bo Qiu, and Dimitris Menemenlis

agencies. For oceanography, its main novelty resides in its wide swaths (50 km on either side of the nadir) and low instrument noise. Wide-swath altimetry is expected to reveal the detailed structures of oceanic eddies, as opposed to the coarse-resolution, interpolated 2D SSH altimetry products derived from 1D nadir altimetry ( Gaultier et al. 2016 ). For a significant wave height of ~2 m, the KaRIn instrument noise, about 2 cm 2 per cycle per kilometer (cpkm) white noise spectral floor, is much lower

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M. C. Eble and F. I. Gonzalez

-period fluctuations induced by planetary waves, oceanictides, and meteorological forcing events, to relativelyshorter-period phenomena such as long surface gravitywaves, microseisms, and tsunamis. To capture theseevents, several types of transducers have been incorporated into pressure sensor units designed for oceanicapplications. The most common types include the vibrating wire, strain gauge, quartz-resonator, Bourdontube, and various capacitance devices. Vibrating wiredesigns typically correlate vibrational

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A. Molod, H. Salmun, and M. Dempsey

1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the shallow layer of the troposphere nearest to the earth’s surface that, particularly over land, exhibits a diurnal variation due to the exchange of energy and momentum between the surface and the atmosphere. The depth of the PBL can range from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Knowledge of the PBL depth and its fluctuations in time are essential for the estimation of the transport of atmospheric constituents, and in particular for

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Valérian Jewtoukoff, Riwal Plougonven, Albert Hertzog, Chris Snyder, and Glen Romine

doing so, we thus consider that the OSB is nearly spherical, which is likely valid at least at first order in the stratosphere but more questionable when the balloon is not fully inflated, that is, during the ascent and final descent phases. With a typical balloon radius of 50 m, the adjustment time scale for an initial difference between the balloon velocity and that of the air of 1 m s −1 is ~400 s, which is shorter than the time scale of most of the wave motions in the stratosphere. It is

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Derek D. Feng and Benjamin M. Herman

, distributed over both land and ocean areas, from 1 to 40 km or more ( Ware et al. 1996 ; Kursinski et al. 1996 , 1997 ; Rocken et al. 1997 ). Studies of planetary atmospheres using radio occultation are by no means new. In fact, radio occultation has been used in probing planetary atmospheres for more than three decades ( Eshleman 1973 ; Tyler 1987 ). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Stanford University’s radio astronomy group first developed the microwave occultation technique for studying

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Gerhard Peters and Hans Jürgen Kirtzel

: HF Doppler measurements of mesopheric gravity wave momentum fluxes, d. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1321-1333.White, A. B., and C. W. Fairall, 1991: Radar-derived profiles of vertical velocity and turbulence dissipation rate in the convectively driven planetary boundary layer. Preprints, Lower Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies. Boulder, 155-156.Wyngaard, J. C., O. R. Cot~, and Y. Izumi, 1971: Local free con vection, similarity, and the budgets of shear stress and heat flux. J

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J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winker

particles ( Noel et al. 2002 ). Dual-polarization lidars are also used to probe other atmospheric constituents. Within the troposphere, polarization-sensitive lidars are frequently used to detect the presence of dust within the planetary boundary layer ( Murayama et al. 2001 ; Gobbi et al. 2000 ). In the stratosphere, depolarization measurements obtained at 532 nm during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment (AASE) contributed significantly to the first morphological classifications of polar

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