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Kenneth J. Arrow

150JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 6ON THE USE OF WINDS IN FLIGHT PLANNING By Kenneth J. ArrowHeadquarters, Air Weather Service, Washington, D. C.1 (Manuscript received 26 May 1947)ABSTRACTThe first part of the paper reviews the theory of the single-heading flight of an airplane on a plane surfacewith unchanging geostrophic wind and shows that the simplicity of the formula for the heading of such aflight is lost if the surface is spherical or if the wind field is changing. It is also shown

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Hannah R. Torres, Kamal A. Alsharif, and Graham A. Tobin

postdisaster recovery and redevelopment, climate and sea level rise, perceptions of adaptations on a personal scale, and awareness of adaptation efforts across various levels of governance, including mitigation and preparation phases of disaster planning ( Fig. 3 ). Focus groups were video and audio recorded with consent, and then transcribed for analysis. Fig . 3. Semistructured interview questions. Transcripts of the focus groups were uploaded into a qualitative analysis software program, MAXQDA, for

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Paul A. Hirschberg, Elliot Abrams, Andrea Bleistein, William Bua, Luca Delle Monache, Thomas W. Dulong, John E. Gaynor, Bob Glahn, Thomas M. Hamill, James A. Hansen, Douglas C. Hilderbrand, Ross N. Hoffman, Betty Hearn Morrow, Brenda Philips, John Sokich, and Neil Stuart

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Weather and Climate Enterprise Strategic Implementation Plan for Generating and Communicating Forecast Uncertainty (the Plan) is summarized. The Plan (available on the AMS website at www.ametsoc.org/boardpges/cwce/docs/BEC/ACUF/2011-02-20-ACUF-Final-Report.pdf) is based on and intended to provide a foundation for implementing recent recommendations regarding forecast uncertainty by the National Research Council (NRC), AMS, and World Meteorological Organization. It defines a vision, strategic goals, roles and respon- sibilities, and an implementation road map to guide the weather and climate enterprise (the Enterprise) toward routinely providing the nation with comprehensive, skillful, reliable, and useful information about the uncertainty of weather, water, and climate (hydrometeorological) forecasts. Examples are provided describing how hydrometeorological forecast uncertainty information can improve decisions and outcomes in various socioeconomic areas. The implementation road map defines objectives and tasks that the four sectors comprising the Enterprise (i.e., government, industry, academia, and nongovernmental organizations) should work on in partnership to meet four key, interrelated strategic goals: 1) understand social and physical science aspects of forecast uncertainty; 2) communicate forecast uncertainty information effectively and collaborate with users to assist them in their decision making; 3) generate forecast uncertainty data, products, services, and information; and 4) enable research, development, and operations with necessary information technology and other infrastructure. The Plan endorses the NRC recommendation that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and, in particular, the National Weather Service, should take the lead in motivating and organizing Enterprise resources and expertise in order to reach the Plan's vision and goals and shift the nation successfully toward a greater understanding and use of forecast uncertainty in decision making.

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Manishka De Mel, William Solecki, Radley Horton, Ryan Bartlett, Abigail Hehmeyer, Shaun Martin, and Cynthia Rosenzweig

information are most useful for them as they plan for climate change. It is important to understand the challenges and opportunities that these stakeholders face as they connect their practice to climate adaptation and resiliency. The paper presents results of a survey conducted by sets of stakeholders ( n = 224) associated with World Wildlife Fund (WWF) projects in tropical and subtropical countries, including the WWF–Columbia University Adaptation for Development and Conservation (ADVANCE) program

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Steven A. Stage and Robert A. Weller

The Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) is a study of the response of the upper ocean to atmospheric forcing in the vicinity of an oceanic front in the subtropical convergence zone southwest of Bermuda, the response of the lower atmosphere in that vicinity to the oceanic front, and the associated two-way interaction between ocean and atmosphere. FASINEX is planned for the winter and spring of 1985/86 with an intensive period in February and March 1986 in the vicinity of 27°N, 70°W, where sea-surface-temperature fronts are climatologically common. Measurements will be made from buoys, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. A previous article gave a brief history of FASINEX and presented its scientific goals. This article describes the FASINEX experimental plan.

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Adrienne Marshall, Van Butsic, and John Harte

climate variables, will allow managers to plan for visitation and adjust quota timing if necessary. Furthermore, it provides a basis for further inquiry of how changing human phenology may interact with the changing phenology of other species. Changing phenology of wilderness use may be relevant to wilderness visitors, managers of protected areas, and local businesses that rely on tourism and to ecosystems that may be stressed by climate change and are impacted by visitor use. 2. Methods a. Study area

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Martin-Pierre Lavigne, Alain N. Rousseau, Richard Turcotte, Anne-Marie Laroche, Jean-Pierre Fortin, and Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

showed that this tool can be used on large-scale watersheds for land management planning with respect to water resources. Annual, spring, and summer runoff simulation results were consistent with observations from experimental paired watersheds. More simulation studies could be made to validate the predictive power of GIBSI for smaller deforested area, as well as for the long-term effects of vegetation growth. This could be coupled with an application on paired watersheds. Finally, the integration of

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Saumya Sarkar, Jonathan B. Butcher, Thomas E. Johnson, and Christopher M. Clark

dedicated bioretention areas. Bioretention includes an underdrain for native soils with low infiltration capacity. Green roofs: Green roof designs have distinct characteristics and are not directly connected to native soils. They are most often used in denser plans with flat rooftops, but are also now designed for pitched roofs (up to about 35°). While green roofs are typically connected to other GI elements in a complete design, they are examined in isolation in this experiment to evaluate the

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A. Kermanshah, S. Derrible, and M. Berkelhammer

datasets exist that contain information on home-to-work trips, including the Census Transportation Planning Products (CTPP) and the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) datasets ( Kermanshah and Derrible 2017 ). However, travel patterns during extreme events cannot be compared with typical daily patterns, and it is questionable whether using these datasets offers higher accuracy

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Evan M. Oswald, Richard B. Rood, Kai Zhang, Carina J. Gronlund, Marie S. O’Neill, Jalonne L. White-Newsome, Shannon J. Brines, and Daniel G. Brown

atmospheric temperature and human mortality: A critical review of the literature . Climatic Change , 92 , 299 – 341 . Grimmond , C. S. B. , and T. R. Oke , 1995 : Comparison of heat fluxes from summertime observations in the suburbs of four North American cities . J. Appl. Meteor. , 34 , 873 – 889 . Grimmond , C. S. B. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Climate and more sustainable cities: Climate information for improved planning and management of cities (producers/capabilities perspective

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