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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

recognition that the decades-long record of observations of clouds, aerosol, and radiation at megasites such as SGP or NSA could be used more fruitfully for model evaluation, ARM is creating a framework to further facilitate comparison between models and observations. Modelers tend to focus on a few choice case studies because of the difficulties of evaluating their models for a broad range of conditions. ARM and ASR are together engaging in plans for regular high-resolution modeling to complement regular

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

-based radiative flux and heating rate product. The birth of the Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC; Oreopoulos and Mlawer 2010 ) can be traced back to those discussions. As the name implies, one of the central ideas was that the project would become the source of an evolving and regularly updated permanent reference database for evaluation of radiative transfer codes used in a variety of Earth system models. During the initial stages of CIRC planning, it became apparent that choosing only

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

cross section of radar reflectivity in dB Z seen by the TRMM PR along the red line superimposed on the plan view at 4 shown in the inset. The vertical cross section runs from left to right along the red line. Latitudes −2 to −6 are in the Southern Hemisphere. Longitudes are in the Eastern Hemisphere. From Houze et al. (2015) . Using only the TRMM radar echoes identified as convective, Liu and Zipser (2013) analyzed the frequency of occurrence of convective features that were mesoscale in

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

site in the Azores, and transects of the Meteor and Polarstern research vessels. Future field campaigns, for example, Arctic sea ice study or clouds in the Southern Ocean, could benefit strongly from an early stage joint planning phase. c. Collaboration topic 3: Improving the link between models and observations The operational use of LES at profiling sites as done in the KPT ( section 3c ) is highly promising to match the scales of observations and models and should be made transferable to

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

stratospheric and tropospheric composition and chemistry and how human activities can perturb these linkages with consequences for climate change. The first of these developments was the discovery of human influence on stratospheric ozone through catalytic ozone destruction via NO x ( Crutzen 1970 ). Studies showed that increases in NO x due to human activities leading to enhanced fossil fuel combustion (such as from a planned fleet of high-altitude supersonic transport planes) ( Johnston 1971 ; Crutzen

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

experiments, such as the planned Years of Maritime Continent (YMC), and high-resolution modeling studies will help the understanding of the interaction between MJO and the cold surges and Borneo vortex. Regarding the rare development of Typhoon Vamei (2001), many mesoscale numerical weather prediction models were able to simulate the equatorial cyclogenesis based on initial conditions that are not obviously dissimilar from those observed on many other December or January days. Numerical experiments to

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

to the effect of volcanic aerosol from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. [From WMO (2015 ).] With growing evidence of the harmful effects of anthropogenic halogens on the ozone layer and the associated risks for life and human health resulting from enhanced surface-UV radiation, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) developed in 1977 a World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer and conducted a series of international scientific ozone assessments. Following the Vienna Convention for the Protection of

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

to wind stress forcing, and to the response of the atmosphere to changes in SST (see section 4b ). The 1982/83 El Niño event (the warm phase of ENSO) was remarkable for its amplitude and duration. It inspired meteorologists and oceanographers to come together and plan the 10-yr program Tropical Oceans on the Global Atmosphere (TOGA) to study the impact of the oceans on the atmosphere over 1985–94. TOGA significantly enhanced the observing system in the tropical Pacific [for an overview, see

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

.5194/acp-10-5047-2010 . 10.5194/acp-10-5047-2010 Changnon , S. A. , 1975 : The paradox of planned weather modification . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 56 , 27 – 37 ,<0027:TPOPWM>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1975)056<0027:TPOPWM>2.0.CO;2 Changnon , S. A. , 1981 : METROMEX: A Review and Summary. Meteor. Monogr. , No. 40, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 181 pp. 10.1007/978-1-935704-29-4 Changnon , S. A. , 1992 : Inadvertent weather modification in urban areas

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

planning across a broad range of sectors. Over the last century, scientific and technological advances have driven a steady growth in forecast capabilities, culminating in a modern landscape of forecasting in which the advent of high-performance computing, broadband connectivity, and global high-resolution geophysical datasets are transforming long-held traditional paradigms of operational prediction. The concept of seamlessness (of models, data, methods, and information products across space and time

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