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Dean Vickers and L. Mahrt

include cup anemometer wind speed measurements at the 7-, 15-, 20-, 29-, 38-, 43-, and 48-m levels, wind direction at 20 and 43 m, atmospheric temperature difference measurements at two levels, sea surface radiative temperature, 10-m absolute air temperature, precipitation, and water currents. Our analysis considers 1-h data records. The choice of 1-h for the record size is supported below in the discussion of flux sampling errors. The sonic anemometer fields of three-dimensional wind components and

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Vidhi Bharti, Eric Schulz, Christopher W. Fairall, Byron W. Blomquist, Yi Huang, Alain Protat, Steven T. Siems, and Michael J. Manton

the observed flux characteristics is being addressed in a separate study (Bharti et al. 2018, manuscript submitted to J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. ). Thus, this paper compares the surface H s and H l (radiative fluxes not included) obtained from the CAPRICORN experiment and SOFS moored surface float with those estimated by OAFlux, ERA-Interim, and the routine R/V Investigator ship observations collected using standard instruments as part of IMOS. The R/V Investigator routine sensor data are

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Jamie D. Shutler, Peter E. Land, Jean-Francois Piolle, David K. Woolf, Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy, Frederic Paul, Fanny Girard-Ardhuin, Bertrand Chapron, and Craig J. Donlon

1. Introduction The climate of Earth is sensitive to the radiative impact of a number of gases and different types of particles in the atmosphere. The atmospheric concentration of many important gases and particles is sensitive to the air–sea transfer of volatile compounds. These gases can also play a substantial role in the biogeochemistry of the oceans. It is therefore important to quantify contemporary air–sea fluxes of gases and also to provide the understanding necessary to project

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Wenying Su, Ellsworth Dutton, Thomas P. Charlock, and Warren Wiscombe

unprecedented radiative flux profile data. Such applications call for additional evaluation and characterization of the performance of radiometers under very low temperature and/or pressure. We tested four Kipp and Zonen pyranometers (CM21 and CM22) and one Kipp and Zonen CG4 pyrgeometer because of their stability, accuracy, and wide usage, using the thermal-vacuum chamber at Global Monitoring Division [GMD, formerly the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL)] of the National Oceanic and

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Graeme L. Stephens, Robert F. McCoy Jr., Renata B. McCoy, Philip Gabriel, Philip T. Partain, Steven D. Miller, and Steven P. Love

reflected fluxes were measured, the procedure for deriving albedos from these fluxes was based on the use of a spectral radiative transfer model to predict the incident spectral flux at flight altitude. The credibility of this calculated spectrum was checked using the three spectral measurements of downwelling flux available from the uplooking TDDR. The calculated downwelling spectral flux along with the measured TDDR fluxes are shown in Fig. 9b for the 13-km altitude. The same model is combined with

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J. C. H. van der Hage, W. Boot, H. van Dop, P. G. Duynkerke, and J. Vilà-Guerau De Arellano

ultraviolet radiometer, which is expected to become commercially available in 1993. Itmeasures total and direct downward irradiance at 367nm with a bandwidth of +5 nm. Madronich (1987)pointed out the physical differences and relationshipsbetween the radiative quantities, irradiance, and actinicflux. When there is no direct radiation the relation between downward irradiance Ea and actinic flux Fd isgiven byFa = (2a + 2)Ed. (3)At the KNMI site, the albedo a for UV-A radiationwas very

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Sheldon Bacon and Nick Fofonoff

, u is three-dimensional velocity); through the divergence of the total flux of heatby molecular processes including radiative exchange,conduction, the heat of mixing, etc. (rhs, second term);and through such processes as the dissipation of mechanical energy into heat, chemical reaction, andchange of phase (rhs, third term). We proceed by using the equation drawn from thesecond law of thermodynamics, which introduces thestate variable entropy, dE = 7-1rI - PdV + IzdS, whereS is salinity, V is

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Dongxiao Wang, Lili Zeng, Xixi Li, and Ping Shi

over the tropical and midlatitude oceans, Brunke et al. (2003) showed that the overall performance of the COARE 3.0 algorithm tops the other 11 algorithms considered. In Eqs. (1) and (2) , U , T s , q s , and q a are independent variables and they are to be estimated from the synthesis. According to COARE 3.0, input data for the synthesis include not only U , T s , q s , and q a but also other surface meteorological variables (air temperature, solar, and infrared radiative fluxes

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Steven P. Anderson, Alan Hinton, and Robert A. Weller

in the calculation of the surface heat flux are the net shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes and the latent and sensible heat fluxes. A complete description of the observed fluxes and their derivation from the moored observations during COARE is reported by Weller and Anderson (1996) . The empirically derived transfer coefficients and boundary layer profiles used in the bulk flux formula are those of Fairall et al. (1996) . Due to a lack of observational data, it is not known whether these

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Alexandre Trouvilliez, Florence Naaim-Bouvet, Hervé Bellot, Christophe Genthon, and Hubert Gallée

campaigns and in road management is the FlowCapt. It is a commercialized acoustic sensor able to quantify the horizontal snow flux with an accuracy given by the manufacturer of ±5% ( Chritin et al. 1999 ).This instrument has been used in different research campaigns in the Swiss and French Alps ( Lehning and Fierz 2008 ; Naaim-Bouvet et al. 2010 ), in the Arctic region ( Jaedicke 2002 ; Savelyev et al. 2006 ), and in Antarctica ( Scarchilli et al. 2010 ; Gallée et al. 2013 ). Two successive versions

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