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Tomohito J. Yamada, Myong-In Lee, Masao Kanamitsu, and Hideki Kanamaru

(US10)] and carefully examine the representation of diurnal rainfall in the boreal summer in the contiguous United States and northern Mexico. One of the major motivations of this study is to examine whether the broad-scale features in the rainfall are reasonably reproduced by explicitly resolving subgrid-scale convection and precipitation process. 2. Model and dynamical downscaling procedure This study used the Regional Spectral Model (RSM; Juang and Kanamitsu 1994 ) that originated from a model

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Ju-Mee Ryoo, Sen Chiao, J. Ryan Spackman, Laura T. Iraci, F. Martin Ralph, Andrew Martin, Randall M. Dole, Josette E. Marrero, Emma L. Yates, T. Paul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, and Cecilia S. Chang

questions motivated us to augment the new observations reported in this study with dynamical diagnostic analyses and regional model simulations. Prior modeling studies have helped greatly to clarify the fundamental connections between subsynoptic low-level jets, orographically modified flows, and precipitation, as well as to reveal gaps in our current understanding, observations, and modeling capabilities. Doyle (1997) showed for a storm system impacting the northern California coast in January 1995

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Huancui Hu, Francina Dominguez, Praveen Kumar, Jeffery McDonnell, and David Gochis

isotopic compositions in the land surface ( Kendall and Coplen 2001 ). For fully coupled regional atmosphere–land simulations in which a climate model provides the atmospheric and isotopic forcing for the LSM, isotopic composition of water vapor is required as lateral boundary forcing for regional simulations. However, these isotopic observations are largely limited in time and space and are usually subject to discontinuities and discrepancies of scales between measurements and modeling, which makes it

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M. Georgescu

modifiers of local- to regional-scale climate ( Mills 2007 ). While the urban heat island (UHI) is classically acknowledged as the most distinct indicator of the built environment’s existence ( Stewart and Oke 2012 ), examination of urban impacts must extend beyond near-surface temperature to include effects on hydroclimate, air quality and consequent dispersion of particulates, energy demand necessary for the maintenance of living comfort, and consequences for ecosystems and biodiversity ( Shepherd

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Simon O. Krichak, Joseph S. Breitgand, and Steven B. Feldstein

model with T62 horizontal resolution. The precipitation data are obtained from the model runs. Note here that, although the application of gridded reanalysis-based data for climate evaluations over the Euro-Mediterranean region has become a widely accepted strategy, there are significant limitations to the data because of important changes in the global observation system during the twentieth century, as well as global warming–associated regional trends in temperature, water vapor content, kinetic

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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

. Miller , 2009 : Seasonal effects of Indian Ocean freshwater forcing in a regional coupled model . J. Climate , 22 , 6577 – 6596 , doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2990.1 . Seo , K.-H. , and W. Wang , 2010 : The Madden–Julian oscillation simulated in the NCEP Climate Forecast System Model: The importance of stratiform heating . J. Climate , 23 , 4770 – 4793 , doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI2983.1 . Seo , K.-H. , W. Wang , J. Gottschalck , Q. Zhang , J.-K. E. Schemm , W. R. Higgins , and A

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T. Sakazaki and K. Hamilton

. Wang , and S.-P. Xie , 2004 : Effects of the Andes on eastern Pacific climate: A regional atmospheric model study . J. Climate , 17 , 589 – 602 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0589:EOTAOE>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0589:EOTAOE>2.0.CO;2 Yagai , I. , 1989 : Nonmigrating thermal tides detected in data analysis and a general circulation model simulation . J. Geophys. Res. , 94 , 6341 – 6356 , doi: 10.1029/JD094iD05p06341 . 10.1029/JD094iD05p06341 Zeng , X. , and A

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Emily J. Becker, Ernesto Hugo Berbery, and R. Wayne Higgins

, can be more informative than seasonal mean variability for many applications. Many studies have focused on changes in extreme precipitation events, and have found sensitivity in the extreme tails of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) to climate modes such as ENSO ( Gershunov and Barnett 1998 ; Cayan et al. 1999 ; Higgins et al. 2000a ). Recent research has found that ENSO, which has significant effects on seasonal average precipitation and surface temperature in various regions of

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Xiaoqin Jing, Bart Geerts, Yonggang Wang, and Changhai Liu

1. Introduction Wintertime orographic precipitation is important to the hydrological cycle and the main source of water in the interior western United States (IWUS), a relatively arid region ( Roe 2005 ; Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). High-resolution regional climate models appear to be able to capture cold-season orographic precipitation in this region quite well ( Ikeda et al. 2010 ; Rasmussen et al. 2011 ), in fact better than the typically sparse network of gauges or gauge-based gridded

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L. Bruce Railsback

to wealth and geopolitical power in North America did not do the same in the Caribbean and Africa [as Engerman (2003) asked]. Questions like these combine with the relationship documented in Fig. 2 and Tables 2 , 5 , and 6 to suggest that regular moderate precipitation and its facilitation of societal development are necessary (not sufficient, but necessary) conditions for eventual empire and large-scale economic dominance. b. Climate and regional aspects of human history 1) The

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