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Scott C. Sheridan, P. Grady Dixon, Adam J. Kalkstein, and Michael J. Allen

higher thresholds, there was a greater relative risk overall, but the results were much less spatiotemporally stable, due to their infrequent occurrence. c. Assessment of the impacts of heat on mortality To assess spatiotemporal trends of heat-related mortality across the United States, we first calculated relative risks of mortality on EHE days for each of the 107 metropolitan areas; five mortality all-cause totals: all age, males over 65, females over 65, males 45–64, and females 45–64; and each of

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Richard W. Dixon and Todd W. Moore

counties and their respective CWA identified as highly vulnerable by two out of the three assessment methods. Counties are listed alphabetically. Table 7. Texas counties and their respective CWA identified as highly vulnerable by all three assessment methods. Counties are listed alphabetically. Fig . 7. Texas counties identified as highly vulnerable to tornadoes by two out of the three and three out of three methods (i.e., very high by methods 2 and 3; high risk, high exposure by method 1). Of the

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Jill C. Malmstadt, James B. Elsner, and Thomas H. Jagger

. , 52B , 393 – 442 . Elsner , J. , T. Jagger , and K-b Liu , 2008a : Comparison of hurricane return levels using historical and geological records. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 47 , 368 – 374 . Elsner , J. , J. Kossin , and T. Jagger , 2008b : The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature , 455 , 92 – 95 . Emanuel , K. , S. Ravela , E. Vivant , and C. Risi , 2006 : A statistical deterministic approach to hurricane risk assessment. Bull

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Mario Brito, David Smeed, and Gwyn Griffiths

underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments . Risk Anal. , 30 , 1771 – 1788 , doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01476.x . Brito, M. P. , Griffiths G. , Ferguson J. , Hopkin D. , Mills R. , Pederson R. , and MacNeil E. , 2012 : A behavioral probabilistic risk assessment framework for managing autonomous underwater vehicle deployments . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 29 , 1689 – 1703 , doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00005.1 . Collett, D. , 2003 : Modelling Survival Data in Medical Data

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Debbie Hopkins

risk. Thus, it can be suggested that for many New Zealanders, climate change is perceived to be a global (distanced) rather than local threat. Nevertheless, with a market economy and heavy dependence on international trade ( Statistics New Zealand 2013b ), New Zealand is vulnerable to external as well as internal stressors. The climate in New Zealand is already changing. In alignment with global average temperature increases, New Zealand has experienced an increase of 0.96°C in the past century

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Joanna Endter-Wada, Theresa Selfa, and Lisa W. Welsh

the existing water literature are important for framing our approach to understanding adaptation to drought in the Bear River Basin. The literature specifically focused on drought takes primarily a managerial approach and emphasizes how to define, predict, and prepare for droughts and assess their impacts ( Wilhite 2005 ). Drought is generally framed as hazard or disaster, and responding to drought is understood in the context of impact/vulnerability assessment, risk analysis, and development of

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Makenzie J. Krocak, Joseph T. Ripberger, Hank Jenkins-Smith, and Carol Silva

: Predictors for people’s response to a tornado warning: Arkansas, 1 March 1997 . Disasters , 24 , 71 – 77 , https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7717.00132 . 10.1111/1467-7717.00132 Casteel , M. A. , 2016 : Communicating increased risk: An empirical investigation of the National Weather Service’s impact-based warnings . Wea. Climate Soc. , 8 , 219 – 232 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0044.1 . 10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0044.1 Casteel , M. A. , 2018 : An empirical assessment of impact based tornado

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Auwal F. Abdussalam, Andrew J. Monaghan, Daniel F. Steinhoff, Vanja M. Dukic, Mary H. Hayden, Thomas M. Hopson, John E. Thornes, and Gregor C. Leckebusch

from the World Health Organization (WHO) archives indicate that over 35% of reported meningitis cases in Africa between 1996 and 2010 came from Nigeria, with 95% of these occurring in the northern part of the country. Projecting the future risk of meningitis involves a number of uncertainties because many factors in addition to climate influence the disease and may change in the future, such as vaccination, cultural and behavioral practices, and prevalence of other related diseases. An example is

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William J. Koshak, Kenneth L. Cummins, Dennis E. Buechler, Brian Vant-Hull, Richard J. Blakeslee, Earle R. Williams, and Harold S. Peterson

-induced changes in CONUS CG lightning. The sensitivities S 1 and S 2 are fundamental to the assessment process. This study is interested in characterizing certain climate-driven lightning-caused impacts. In broad terms, the NCA process defines risk as the product of the likelihood of an event occurring multiplied by the consequences of that event. Therefore, even if the likelihood is small, if the consequences are extremely large then the risk will still be considerable. Assigning a value to the

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Bogdan Antonescu, Jonathan G. Fairman Jr., and David M. Schultz

to conduct a tornado damage risk assessment for the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex ( Rae and Stefkovich 2000 ). Using geographic information system (GIS) technology, 53 tornado tracks from the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak were mapped and distributed across the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. For the Moore F5 tornado ( Marshall 2002 ), the most damaging tornado of the outbreak that affected Oklahoma City and surrounding areas, the actual wind and damage contours were imported from engineering surveys

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