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Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Matthew Rodell, and Rolf H. Reichle

1. Introduction Since its launch in March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite system has provided unprecedented measurements of column-integrated terrestrial water storage (TWS) for the entire globe. These measurements have been applied in novel investigations of river discharge ( Syed et al. 2005 ), regional evapotranspiration ( Rodell et al. 2004a ; Swenson and Wahr 2006a ), climate and teleconnections ( Andersen et al. 2005 ; Crowley et al. 2006 ), and the

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

1. Introduction The Caribbean Sea is a frequent pathway for tropical cyclones (TCs); these storms encounter several different ocean regimes such as the Amazon–Orinoco River plume, the Caribbean Current, the Yucatan Current, and large warm-core eddies (WCEs) that reside in the basin. During the late summer months of the Atlantic hurricane season, sea surface temperature (SST) remains fairly homogeneous throughout the basin ( Fig. 1 ). Yet, ocean heat content relative to the 26°C isotherm [OHC

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Charlotte M. Emery, Sylvain Biancamaria, Aaron Boone, Pierre-André Garambois, Sophie Ricci, Mélanie C. Rochoux, and Bertrand Decharme

to continental waters. Continental water can be studied at the global scale using land surface models (LSMs) coupled with a river-routing model (RRM). LSMs provide lower boundary conditions to atmospheric general circulation models, while RRMs compute river discharge, which can be potentially used as boundary conditions to ocean general circulation models. Several RRMs have been developed at a global scale ( Vörösmarty et al. 1989 ; Coe 1998 ; Hagemann and Dümenil 1997 ; Oki and Sud 1998

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Kevin Werner, Kristen Averyt, and Gigi Owen

consideration of forecast information to objective utilization of forecast elements including the median forecast or a range of the forecast distribution. An increasingly common forecast application is to formally tie an operational decision to a median forecast value. An example of this is the coordinated operations guidelines for Lakes Powell and Mead on the Colorado River ( USBR 2007 ). These guidelines set decisions related to interstate water allocation and reservoir operations to the median forecasted

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Hisham Eldardiry and Faisal Hossain

be useful for improving reservoir operations (e.g., Hamlet et al. 2002 ; Nayak et al. 2018 ; Giuliani et al. 2019 ; Ahmad and Hossain 2020 ). Using retrospective streamflow forecasts in operating reservoirs in the Columbia River, Hamlet et al. (2002) showed that long-lead streamflow forecasts can be effectively utilized to obtain increased annual average hydropower. During extreme conditions of droughts and floods, forecasting reservoir inflow informs dam operators how to efficiently manage

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Shin’ichiro Kako, Tomofumi Nakagawa, Katsumi Takayama, Naoki Hirose, and Atsuhiko Isobe

1. Introduction It is well known that the Changjiang River (or Yangtze River) is the major source of freshwater entering the Yellow and East China Seas (YECS; e.g., Chang and Isobe 2003 ). Although many rivers discharge into the YECS, the Changjiang River discharge (CRD) accounts for 90% of the total (e.g., Shen et al. 1998 ; Chang and Isobe 2003 ; see Fig. 1 ). Figure 2 shows the annual variation of the CRD, as reported by Chang and Isobe (2003) , which demonstrates that the CRD has a

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Min Gan, Yongping Chen, Shunqi Pan, Jiangxia Li, and Zijun Zhou

tidal constituents being taken into account, the classical harmonic analysis model T_TIDE can predict the tidal levels by representing more than 90% signal variance of measured tides in the coastal zones ( Pan et al. 2018a ). However, when the tides propagate into an estuary, their interaction with the river discharge will make the amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents nonstationary ( Gallo and Vinzon 2005 ). This will significantly reduce the accuracy of T_TIDE model predictions in the river

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storm-centre.P R E C I P I T A T I ON'.The moiithly chart of precipitation shows that there has been a very great excess inthe South Atlantic States, and a decided excess in the Western Gulf States and the Ohiovalley. In compiling this chart use has been made of the reports of voluntary observers,in nddit.ion to those of the Signal Corps.On the 2lst aiid 22d, i l t Nashville, there fell 5;96 inches in.36 hours,' being the heaviestrainfall ever recorded there.R I V E R S ' ."1The itlissouri river nt

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fluence manifests, so early in the spring, its predominance. At Mount, Washington, windswere reported on the 23d, of velocity as high as 130 miles an hour atid continuing nearthat enorinoiis force for twenty-four hours.R I V E R S ,The condition of the rivers wilt be found in one of the tables on Chart No. 2. TheRed river, it ,will be seen, rose a t Shreveport to its highest as the month closed. Soalso the Missouri at Leavenworth. The Cumberland was very high on the 25th, butafterward fell

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There has been a deficiency in New England varying from 1.79 to 4.00 itiches, inthe Middle Stittcs, except southern Virginia, 0.44 to 3.26 inches, from northern portionsof Georgia a.nd South Carolina to the Ohio valley 0.35 to 2.03 inches, from northeastern&sas to southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois 1.67 to 3.90 inches, over northwest-ern Ohio and southeilstcrll Michigan 0.20 to 1.23 inches, and over western Minnesota0.98 inch.R I V E R S .The Red river rose steadily a t Shreveport

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