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Jieshun Zhu and Arun Kumar

1. Introduction Ocean salinity is a fundamental physical property of seawater, which influences the stratification and circulation of the world oceans. It also serves as a potential indicator of the global water cycle (e.g., Schmitt 2008 ). In basins where the upper ocean stratification is primarily controlled by salinity, the density mixed layer depth is shallower than the isothermal layer depth, and the barrier layer (BL) exists between the base of the mixed layer defined based on density

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Intan S. Nurhati, Kim M. Cobb, and Emanuele Di Lorenzo

) and Corrège (2006) ]. The oxygen isotopic composition ( δ 18 O) of coral skeletal aragonite reflects changes in SST as well as changes in the δ 18 O of seawater ( δ 18 O SW ), the latter linearly related to seawater salinity ( Fairbanks et al. 1997 ). In the tropical Pacific, coral δ 18 O records have been used to reconstruct preinstrumental ENSO variability ( Cole et al. 1993 ; Tudhope et al. 2001 ; Evans et al. 2002 ; Cobb et al. 2003 ), decadal-scale tropical Pacific climate variability

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Saurabh Rathore, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Helen E. Phillips, and Ming Feng

intensified over the past few decades, and some of the best evidence for this intensification is in the long-term ocean salinity measurements ( Huntington 2006 ; Helm et al. 2010 ; Durack et al. 2012 ). The intensification of the global water cycle on long time scales follows the paradigm “rich-gets-richer and the poor-gets-poorer,” which means wet regions are getting wetter and dry regions are getting drier ( Trenberth 2011 ). However, some studies ( Greve et al. 2014 ; Kumar et al. 2015 ; Feng and

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R. Droghei, B. Buongiorno Nardelli, and R. Santoleri

1. Introduction Ocean salinity, temperature, and related density are fundamental physical variables to investigate global ocean dynamics. They are clearly related to the earth hydrological cycle and contribute to global ocean circulation, potentially affecting climate processes also (e.g., Baumgartner and Reichel 1975 ; Schmitt 2008 ; Yu 2011 ). Sea surface salinity (SSS) is largely controlled at the global scale by the balance between evaporation and precipitation, but it is also

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Laifang Li, Raymond W. Schmitt, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, and Kristopher B. Karnauskas

oceans also modulates the intensity of extreme precipitation on land ( Chan and Misra 2010 ). The evaporation and lateral export of moisture from the subtropical oceans leave an imprint on the sea surface salinity (SSS) field. Resulting from the net removal of freshwater from the ocean surface, the subtropical oceans are characterized by high SSS relative to global mean values ( Schmitt 2008 ). For example, the saltiest region of the open ocean is located in the subtropical North Atlantic, where SSS

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D. Prandle

VOLUME 11 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OCTOBER 1981Salinity Intrusion in Estuaries D. PRANDLEInstitute of Oceanographic Sciences, Bidston Observatory, Merseyside, England L43 7RA(Manuscript received 17 February 1981, in final form 27 July 1981) ABSTRACT One dimensional time-averaged solutions are examined for salinity intrusion in estuaries with a breadthvariation Bt.(X/h)" and

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Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, Mathieu Hamon, Jacqueline Boutin, Jean-Luc Vergely, Gilles Reverdin, Alexandre Supply, and Nicolas Reul

1. Introduction Salinity is an essential ocean and climate variable. Along with temperature, it plays a fundamental role in the thermohaline global circulation and climate variability. Ocean salinity is also a key parameter for monitoring the global water cycle. The ocean salinity and temperature contribute together to the ocean water mass characteristics. These characteristics include density, a key parameter controlling the ocean stability and the ocean current dynamic; and the spiciness that

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Harvey E. Seim

reflection at a sound speed gradient but is important only when the acoustic wavelength and vertical scale of the gradient are comparable ( Ewart 1980 ). Because the pycnoclines discussed in this paper are at least 1 m in width and the acoustic wavelengths for frequencies greater than 10 kHz are less than 0.15 m, the amount of backscatter due to reflection is negligible. Between 1 and 10 kHz, reflection from 1-m-scale pycnoclines may be important but is not considered further in this study. Salinity

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Martin R. Wadley and Grant R. Bigg

et al. 2003 ), resulting in a strong cooling of the North Atlantic region. Since the Younger Dryas the THC has been comparatively stable, maintaining the warmth of the Holocene Period, but there have nevertheless been fluctuations in the THC ( Rasmussen et al. 2003 ; Kristensen et al. 2004 ). The sinking arm of the THC requires a source of dense surface waters in the northern North Atlantic. At temperatures close to the freezing point, density variation is dominated by salinity, so variations in

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Frank Bryan and Scott Bachman

1. Introduction In each of the subtropical gyres of the global ocean there exists a distinct surface salinity maximum, with closed isohaline contours. They are an expression of the coupling of the ocean and atmosphere through the hydrologic cycle. The surface salinity maxima are located in the vicinity of regional extrema in net evaporation but are not exactly collocated with them. These surface features connect to equatorward- and westward-extending subsurface salinity maxima (typical core

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