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Kenneth G. Hubbard and R. J. Hanks

, Ed., A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 272 pp.Bennett, W. H., D. W. Pittman, D. C. Tingey, D. R. McAllister, H. B. Peterson and I. G. Sampson, 1954: Fifty years of dry land research. Bull. 371, Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 81 pp.Childs, S. C., and R. J. Hanks, 1975: Model of soil salinity effects on crop growth. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc., 39, 617-622.Chujo, H., 1966: Differences in vernalization effect in wheat under various temperatures, tVoc. Crop Sci

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Alfred H. Woodcock and A. T. Spencer

VonuME6I0$i01 se R H (%) Fro. 1. Equilibrium salinity of sea-salt solutions (o) (Aronsand Kientzler, 1954) and sodium chloride solutions (/~), as afunction of relative humidity and in the temperature range of10 to 25C. The error due to temperature differences is less than1 per cent.(compare line A'B' to line Tv). The resulting lapse rateof the temperature of the salt-laden air can be regardedas a modified wet-adiabatic lapse rate

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Wallace E. Howell and Manuel E. López

record, and the severedrought that began in the final months of 1963 wascontinuing unabated into April 1965. Rainfall in manyareas was less than 70 per cent of normal, and on thesouth coast of Puerto Rico it was as little as 30 per centof normal. Ground water tables were appreciablelowered, and salinity was becoming a problem in manywells. Impelled by these conditions, several large privateconcerns and government agencies interested in water,weighing the near certainty of a prolonged need

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W. Frank Staylor and John T. Suttles

Saudi Desert. This siteis almost entirely sand dunes and sand seas, and thelack of moisture and saline nature of the sand cause itto be virtually free of all vegetation (Short et al., 1976).Unpublished Nimbus-6 ERB data indicated that bothof these relatively small desert sites were uniform(_+5%), and that the Gibson site was darker and theSaudi site was brighter than the overall Sahara-ArabianDesert.4. Reflected shortwavea. Sahara-Arabian bidirectional model Bidirectional reflectance is defined

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Maria João Costa, Ana Maria Silva, and Vincenzo Levizzani

characteristic of clear seawater ( Viollier 1982 ), are compared with those retrieved considering a BRDF for the ocean surface, aiming at quantifying the differences between the two cases. The BRDF ocean model contained in 6S ( Morel 1988 ) is used and takes into account wind speed and direction, ocean salinity, and pigment concentration. Mean values of wind speed of 6 m s −1 , wind direction of 45°, salinity of 35 ppt, and pigment concentration of 0.3 mg m −3 were adopted. Three climatological aerosol

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R. G. Steadman

high as 41-C (Hill, 1970), a person feels ~omfortable only at a core temperature close to 37-C,which is therefore taken as a criterion of comfort andequilibrium under all conditions in the present paper.f. Internal or core vapor pressure (P~) There is consensus in the medical literature (e.g.,Buettner, 1959) that the body's core vapor pressurecorresponds to a saline solution with an effective relative.humidity of ~90%. Since saturation vapor pressureof water at 37-C is 6.28 kPa, vapor pressure

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P. K. Thapliyal, P. K. Pal, M. S. Narayanan, and J. Srinivasan

). Theoretically, the best microwave frequency for soil moisture retrieval is 1.4 GHz ( Jackson and Schmugge 1989 ). However, the best available microwave radiometer frequency on board satellites to date is 6.6 GHz (e.g., SMMR, MSMR, AMSR). The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission ( Kerr et al. 2001 ), scheduled to be launched in 2007, will provide brightness temperature measurements at 1.4 GHz with a higher spatial resolution (∼30–50 km) that is suitable for numerical weather models. Relating the

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Chao-Lin Wang, Shao-Bo Zhong, Guan-Nan Yao, and Quan-Yi Huang

. 10.1029/2000JD900780 Christakos , G. , P. Bogaert , and M. Serre , 2012 : Temporal GIS: Advanced Functions for Field-Based Applications. Springer, 219 pp. Douaik , A. , M. van Meirvenne , T. Tóth , and M. Serre , 2004 : Space-time mapping of soil salinity using probabilistic Bayesian maximum entropy . Stochastic Environ. Res. Risk Assess. , 18 , 219 – 227 , doi: 10.1007/s00477-004-0177-5 . 10.1007/s00477-004-0177-5 Douaik , A. , M. van Meirvenne , and T. Tóth

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K. P. Devkota, A. M. Manschadi, M. Devkota, J. P. A. Lamers, E. Ruzibaev, O. Egamberdiev, E. Amiri, and P. L. G. Vlek

Amu Darya River. The climate of the area is arid with a long-term average annual rainfall of less than 100 mm. The soil at the experimental site is an irrigated alluvial meadow (Russian classification), that is, arenosol, gleyic, calcaric, sodic [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) classification], sandy loam to loamy sand with high soil salinity [2.7 dS m −1 , electrical conductivity of a saturated soil extract (ECe) 1:1 in 0–15-cm soil depth], shallow (0.5–2 m) and saline (2–4 dS m −1

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Mary Morris and Christopher S. Ruf

notably, scatterometers lose sensitivity at high wind speeds and are often plagued by rain contamination. However, scatterometer observations are valuable for wind radii analyses, with good reliability for 34-kt radius estimation. L-band radiometers also have applications in observing storms. Observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) ( Fore et al. 2016 ) and the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) ( Reul et al. 2012 , 2016 ) missions are useful for TC applications because the low

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