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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

logistical effort to launch soundings at sea, especially in storms. Nevertheless, these measurements are most needed when storms threaten populated regions on land. In 1943, Colonel Joe Duckworth flew into the eye of a hurricane near Houston, starting the era of hurricane reconnaissance. However, since flights through severe storms are inherently dangerous for aircraft, adding measurements by launching instruments from aircraft into storms became attractive. In the late 1960s, NCAR developed a dropsonde

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Thomas P. Ackerman, Ted S. Cress, Wanda R. Ferrell, James H. Mather, and David D. Turner

made between the ground-based observations along the Arctic Ocean coast and the adjacent ocean–sea ice, which was one of the original goals for the NSA site ( Stamnes et al. 1999 ). As ARM undertakes measurements in new locales, it has ended operations in the TWP in 2014 after 18 yr. The cessation of operations in the tropics is enabling a redistribution of instruments and resources, which is intended to accelerate the application of ARM observations and data processing for the understanding of key

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

observed in the SH, in 2002. Rossby waves are generated by mountain ranges and land–sea contrasts, so Rossby wave amplitudes are smaller in the SH. There is less wave forcing of the SH winter stratosphere and the polar vortex remains less disturbed (thus providing the colder, more isolated vortex conditions that favor ozone destruction and lead to the ozone hole). Nevertheless, we now know, from the 2002 event, that even though major SH warmings are far less likely than in the NH, they are nevertheless

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Gerald M. Stokes

of increasing carbon dioxide,” DOE/ER-0235; and “Projecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide,” DOE/ER-0237) and two specialized reports (“Characterization of information requirements for studies of CO 2 effects: Water resources, agriculture, fisheries, forests and human health,” DOE/ER-0236, and “Glaciers, ice sheets, and sea level: Effect of a CO 2 induced climatic change,” DOE/ER/60235-1). They were peer reviewed by a large team convened by Roger Revelle, serving as the

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atmosphere. Theoretical models predict a net surface warming of the globe from the direct radiative forcing of these gases and, more importantly, the resulting series of feedbacks. These feedbacks directly affect many processes important to climate such as snow cover and sea ice melting, cloud formation, air–ocean interaction, and global circulation patterns. Consequently, a lack of understanding of the complex response of the atmosphere–ocean system to anthropogenic inputs allows much room for

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

on the thermodynamic variables, this raised the question of whether the change was a result of global warming or some other large-scale change. The lack of a well-understood physical link between warming, the environmental changes, and the tornado data led Trapp and Hoogewind (2018) to look at the relationship of summertime tornado occurrence and Arctic sea ice extent. Tornado activity, measured in a variety of ways, was lower in years with low summertime Arctic sea ice. This did not fully

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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

) have been explained by autocatalytic reactions involving Br atoms and BrO radicals liberated from solvated bromide ions in sea salt aerosols and/or snow and ice ( Vogt et al. 1996 ). High concentrations of Br 2 and BrCl are observed in the Arctic at polar sunrise ( Foster et al. 2001 ). This process is sometimes referred to as the “bromine explosion”: Halogen chemistry associated with bromine- and iodine-containing compounds emitted from open-ocean sources is responsible for significant ozone loss

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

the all the water stored in and on a column of land, that is, the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, snow, ice, and wet biomass. It is the freshwater that enables life on land. It is also one of the four terms in the terrestrial water budget, that is, (1) d S = P − ET − Q , where dS is the change in terrestrial water storage, P is precipitation, ET is evapotranspiration, and Q is runoff from a given study area. Defining the study area as a watershed, river basin, or other

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

associated with a shifting climate, such as more frequent heat waves, more intense precipitation events, and sea level rise ( Hunt and Watkiss 2011 ). These important interactions between cities and broader global climate change have prompted the creation of additional climate policies at the regional and local scales. b. A snapshot of urban climate milestones Horton (1921) first provided evidence that cities tended to be warmer than their surrounding rural areas. This so-called urban heat island is

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