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Steven R. Ramp and Frederick L. Bahr

primary objective of this paper is to illustrate the seasonal variation in the ocean’s response to upwelling-favorable wind stress. To establish the context for this analysis and define the “seasons,” the 3-yr time series of wind speed, 10-m current, and temperature at several depths are provided ( Fig. 3 ). Spring was defined as the time from the spring transition to when the upwelling jet separated from the coast. The time of the spring transitions was established primarily from the surface wind

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Oleg A. Saenko

approximation for vertically integrated transport in the ocean [ U = ( U , V )] on seasonal time scales. This vorticity balance implies that the net mass flux across the contours of constant f  / H is balanced by the vorticity input resulting from wind stress curl. After rewriting it as it can be more readily seen how the topographic effects modify the “original” Sverdrup balance. Limited observations seem to support this generalized balance ( Niiler and Koblinsky 1985 ). Second, an interaction of

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Henry J. F. Penn, S. Craig Gerlach, and Philip A. Loring

general have strong seasonal dimensions. We propose a framework for capturing these nuanced aspects of how communities are impacted by change, one based on the concepts of cumulative effects and community capacity ( CEQ 1997 ; Beckley et al. 2009 ). We pair these concepts with a visual decision calendar framework (see also Corringham et al. 2008 ; Kim and Jain 2010 ; Ray and Webb 2016 ), which we then operationalize with the data on climate and weather impacts gleaned through interviews with

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Martina Ricko, James A. Carton, and Charon Birkett

Titicaca, Model-G provides the best results (mean difference of 0.39), while Model-T is slightly superior overall (mean difference of 0.05) for Balbina, Tonle Sap, and Kainji. c. Effects of climate variability on tropical lake levels To focus on year-to-year changes, we filter out the seasonal cycle by removing the annual and semiannual Fourier harmonics from both observed and modeled lake levels (experiments show these harmonics capture almost all the energy in the seasonal cycle). 1 The anomaly time

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J. Kidston, J. A. Renwick, and J. McGregor

associated with direct temperature advection leading to a positive temperature anomaly. The anomalous high pressure over the county would also be associated with increased solar radiation, and these two effects clearly overwhelm any foehn wind effect during winter. The large-scale seasonality of the SAM may be expected to give rise to seasonal variability in the modes of variation of NZ climate. We investigate this using the second EOF of T anomalies, which is shown in Fig. 10 . The EOF values are

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J. C. H. Chiang, W. Kong, C. H. Wu, and D. S. Battisti

and Xie 2010 ). Chiang et al. (2015) proposed that paleoclimate changes to the East Asian summer monsoon are tied to changes in the timing and duration of the seasonal transitions, driven by changes to the meridional position of the westerlies relative to the Tibetan Plateau. These observations lead to a simple and intuitive idea that differences between the East Asian summer monsoon seasonality from the other monsoons originate because of the downstream effects of the westerlies impinging on

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Michael P. Jensen, Andrew M. Vogelmann, William D. Collins, Guang J. Zhang, and Edward P. Luke

. 2006 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2006 ), where the effects may depend on the combined influences of aerosols, thermodynamics, and the diurnal cycle ( Matsui et al. 2006 ). In this paper, to aid in understanding the role MBL clouds play in climate and assist in improving their representations in climate models, we use satellite data to characterize the organization of MBL cloud systems across the globe (macroscale structure), their associated microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water path and particle

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Rucong Yu and Tianjun Zhou

atmospheric cooling in and above the upper troposphere might have a significant relationship with observed local surface climate change. However, these discussions only pay specific attention to climate change at either the local scale or in a specific season. The seasonal march of the East Asian summer monsoon displays a stepwise northward and northeastward advance. During the period from early May to mid-May, southern China experiences a premonsoon rainy season. The monsoon rain then extends abruptly

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Ruoting Wu and Guixing Chen

and autumn, suggesting that intermediate regime in cold seasons has a strong dependence on terrain effects. Therefore, we see a strong seasonal change of the convectively active and intermediate regimes (CD/CC/IM) against the convectively suppressed regime (ST) in low-lying areas, and the CD/CC against IM/ST around the Himalayan foothills. Fig . 3. Seasonal variations of cloud regimes averaged at (a)–(d) 85°–95°E and (e)–(h) 110°–120°E. The terrains are denoted at the bottom panels. The seasons

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T. Jung, T. N. Palmer, M. J. Rodwell, and S. Serrar

Atlantic region is governed by internal atmospheric processes (e.g., Kushnir et al. 2002 ; Rowell 1998 ), especially on seasonal and interannual time scales. This suggests that predictability of such anomalies is limited to a few weeks. There is observational and modeling evidence, however, that the atmosphere in the North Atlantic region is also affected (i) locally by North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (e.g., Czaja and Frankignoul 1999 ; Rodwell and Folland 2002 ; Rodwell et

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