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Linda O. Mearns, Ray Arritt, Sébastien Biner, Melissa S. Bukovsky, Seth McGinnis, Stephan Sain, Daniel Caya, James Correia Jr., Dave Flory, William Gutowski, Eugene S. Takle, Richard Jones, Ruby Leung, Wilfran Moufouma-Okia, Larry McDaniel, Ana M. B. Nunes, Yun Qian, John Roads, Lisa Sloan, and Mark Snyder

–July 1993 . J. Hydrometeor. , 4 , 584 – 598 . Anderson , C. J. , R. W. Arritt , and J. S. Kain , 2007 : An alternative mass flux profile in the Kain–Fritsch convective parameterization and its effects in seasonal precipitation . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 1128 – 1140 . Bell , J. , L. Sloan , and M. Snyder , 2004 : Extreme climate events: A future scenario . J. Climate , 17 , 81 – 87 . Bukovsky , M. S. , and D. J. Karoly , 2007 : A brief evaluation of precipitation from the

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Luis Samaniego, Stephan Thober, Niko Wanders, Ming Pan, Oldrich Rakovec, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, Christel Prudhomme, Gwyn Rees, Helen Houghton-Carr, Matthew Fry, Katie Smith, Glenn Watts, Hege Hisdal, Teodoro Estrela, Carlo Buontempo, Andreas Marx, and Rohini Kumar

prediction horizons, most focusing on a single function targeting monitoring, short- to medium-range forecasting, and seasonal or climate time scales. This means that users need to refer to different systems and services depending on their planning scale, each generally associated with different and inconsistent types of information and delivered services, hence requiring users to develop different application tools for each independent one, and to take much care when interpreting their different

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Annarita Mariotti, Cory Baggett, Elizabeth A. Barnes, Emily Becker, Amy Butler, Dan C. Collins, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Laura Ferranti, Nathaniel C. Johnson, Jeanine Jones, Ben P. Kirtman, Andrea L. Lang, Andrea Molod, Matthew Newman, Andrew W. Robertson, Siegfried Schubert, Duane E. Waliser, and John Albers

There is high demand for predictions of meteorological conditions that extend beyond 2 weeks. Outlooks at subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) and seasonal to decadal (S2D) time scales are met with growing expectations, driven by the needs of the energy, water management, agriculture, and emergency sectors, among others. Across the globe, users desire forecasts out to several weeks with the skill of a 5-day weather forecast. In the United States, expectations have been set by a recent report by the

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Tandong Yao, Yongkang Xue, Deliang Chen, Fahu Chen, Lonnie Thompson, Peng Cui, Toshio Koike, William K.-M. Lau, Dennis Lettenmaier, Volker Mosbrugger, Renhe Zhang, Baiqing Xu, Jeff Dozier, Thomas Gillespie, Yu Gu, Shichang Kang, Shilong Piao, Shiori Sugimoto, Kenichi Ueno, Lei Wang, Weicai Wang, Fan Zhang, Yongwei Sheng, Weidong Guo, Ailikun, Xiaoxin Yang, Yaoming Ma, Samuel S. P. Shen, Zhongbo Su, Fei Chen, Shunlin Liang, Yimin Liu, Vijay P. Singh, Kun Yang, Daqing Yang, Xinquan Zhao, Yun Qian, Yu Zhang, and Qian Li

and enhances the thermal low near the surface and the summertime anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere over the TP. This is because the daytime solar flux was much greater than the nighttime cooling over TP, which also enhanced the South Asian and East Asian summer precipitation ( Hong et al. 2012 ). Furthermore, the TP’s topographic effects were also discussed ( Ma et al. 2014 ; Song et al. 2010 ). Application of the TP land condition for the subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) prediction

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Yaohui Li, Xing Yuan, Hongsheng Zhang, Runyuan Wang, Chenghai Wang, Xianhong Meng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Yang Yang, Bo Han, Kai Zhang, Xiaoping Wang, Hong Zhao, Guangsheng Zhou, Qiang Zhang, Qing He, Ni Guo, Wei Hou, Cunjie Zhang, Guoju Xiao, Xuying Sun, Ping Yue, Sha Sha, Heling Wang, Tiejun Zhang, Jinsong Wang, and Yubi Yao

forecasting systems that incorporate both seasonal climate prediction information and initial land surface hydrological memory have become popular in recent years, but their performances need to be rigorously verified over the target areas with comprehensive hindcast experiments, especially for extreme drought cases. Multisource drought information systems built on our understanding of drought disaster mechanisms, advanced drought prediction models, and the reasonable estimation of drought impacts as well

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John P. Dawson, Bryan J. Bloomer, Darrell A. Winner, and Christopher P. Weaver

longer-term monthly, seasonal, and annual averages or by grouping various regions or PM species together. For example, Pye et al. (2009) simulated large seasonal and regional effects (on the order of several μg m −3 ) that mostly negated one another when averaged over the entire year and summed to account for total PM. Nevertheless, some common general conclusions emerged from these initial studies: Very broadly, for sulfate, these earlier modeling studies consistently found that simulated

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Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, James Haywood, Robert Wood, Stuart Piketh, Martin Hipondoka, and Paola Formenti

aerosol nucleating the clouds also alter the cloud microphysics and the clouds' likelihood of producing rain. Other effects exist, for example, from the moisture associated with the aerosol layer, while further effects may still remain to be discovered. At a larger scale, the change in atmospheric warming from the smoke affects the neighboring precipitation distribution. The smoke’s influence on the surface energy budget ultimately affects the equatorial climate and its variability through the trade

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Assaf Hochman, Pinhas Alpert, Marina Baldi, Edoardo Bucchignani, Erika Coppola, Yara Dahdal, Nadav Davidovitch, Pantelis Georgiades, Sebastian Helgert, Haneen Khreis, Hagai Levine, Stefano Materia, Maya Negev, Ikram Salah, Mohammed Shaheen, and Filippo Giorgi

has affected human health (e.g., Patz et al. 2005 ; Peretz et al. 2011 ; Mirsaeidi et al. 2016 ). Specifically, in the whole Mediterranean region, climate change leads to alterations in the mean, variability, seasonality, and extremes in one or more climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and aerosols ( Ulbrich et al. 2013 ), thus may influence the incidence of various climate sensitive diseases. The Eastern Mediterranean is identified as a “hot spot” for climate

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Amin Dezfuli

most affected by the floods, revealed that 2018/19 was the wettest year over the period 1980–2019 ( Fig. 2a ). By contrast, the prior year (2017/18) was the driest over the same period. The total seasonal rainfall in both years fell outside two standard deviations of the long-term mean, resulting in the largest year-to-year change in the past four decades. This event presented a compelling example of shifts from prolonged drought to frequent floods and potentially the notion of “extremes become

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Fred L. Moore, Eric A. Ray, Karen H. Rosenlof, James W. Elkins, Pieter Tans, Anna Karion, and Colm Sweeney

in lower-stratospheric water vapor enhanced (from 1980 to 2000) or slowed (following 2000) the global surface temperature changes expected solely from increases in greenhouse gases by as much as 30% ( Solomon et al. 2010 ). Changes in stratospheric water vapor can be directly caused by changes in the Brewer–Dobson circulation through modification of tropical cold-point temperatures. In a seasonal sense, a stronger circulation in boreal winter results in lower tropical cold-point temperatures and

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