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David Changnon and Stanley A. Changnon

1990s caused major regional and national losses, creating awareness of the need to better consider the impacts of climate conditions on business and industry ( Changnon and Changnon 1999 ). Other factors that have affected usage are the growing competition in various business sectors, partially a result of evolving global markets, and the issue of global climate change ( Nutter 1999 ). For example, the U.S. utility industry, which was deregulated in the late 1980s, experienced enhanced

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Ryan P. Crompton, K. John McAneney, Keping Chen, Roger A. Pielke Jr., and Katharine Haynes

In our article ( Crompton et al. 2010 ) we normalized bushfire building damage to current societal conditions by multiplying historical loss records by the factor change in total dwelling numbers from when the event occurred to 2008/09. The dwelling number factor was calculated at the state level and we tested the validity of this resolution using two historic case studies: the 1967 Hobart and 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfires. No trend in building damage was found after normalization. Nicholls

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Iván J. Ramírez, Sue C. Grady, and Michael H. Glantz

and Tauxe 1992 , p. 353). However, these explanations were later challenged by another hypothesis that linked the cholera epidemic to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Epstein et al. 1993 ; Colwell 1996 ; Mourino-Perez 1998 ). ENSO, which includes El Niño (warm phase) and La Niña (cold phase), is an important source of climate variability in the Latin American region, well known for ecosystem and societal impacts, particularly in Peru ( Lagos and Buizer 1992 ; Glantz 2001a ; Caviedes 2001

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

bars. They are as follows: Models1 = model, models, prediction, simulation, simulations, and ensemble; Weather2 = weather, precipitation, temperature, rainfall, and forecasts; Climate3 = climate and climatology; Impact4 = impact and impacts; Data assimilation5 = data assimilation and data assimilation system. Moreover, in the latter half of the twentieth century, AMS was actively seeking to increase its societal focus and relevance. In 1976, the pages of BAMS featured a selection of views

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Kevin M. Roche, K. John McAneney, Keping Chen, and Ryan P. Crompton

this development has occurred over a period of relative quiescence in terms of natural disasters ( Crompton and McAneney 2008 ). The purpose of the current study is to estimate the insured loss if a widespread flooding event, which took place in 1954, recurred under 2011 societal conditions. We also attempt a rough estimate of the associated economic loss. The accumulation of exposure on floodplains and failure to learn from past events was a feature of the losses from the large-scale flooding in

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Daniel Sutter and Somer Erickson

perhaps 66 million person-hours actually spent sheltering per year with a value of about $750 million. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the value of time spent sheltering saved might be closer to $500 million and a 95% lower bound on the value of time saved annually is $109 million. We also discuss other societal impacts of SBW. The area directly in the path of a tornado or radar indicated tornado will still be warned, so any effect of SBW on casualties will be due to second-order effects such as

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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

stressors to natural systems and the ability of those systems to absorb and withstand impacts (physical vulnerability). A companion construct, social vulnerability, provides the societal context within which such stressors operate and highlights the uneven social capacity for preparedness, response, recovery, and adaptation to environmental threats. To fully understand and characterize the vulnerability of places requires the following two measures: attributes of the hazards exposure (areal extent

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Carolina E. Roman, Amanda H. Lynch, and Dale Dominey-Howes

1. Introduction Research on adaptation strategies is said to focus largely on charactering vulnerability to likely impacts of future climate change ( Kelly and Adger 2000 ; Adger 2006 ; Adger et al. 2009 ; Patt et al. 2009 ; Schipper and Burton 2008 ). Vulnerability, in this instance, is depicted as the degree to which a system is susceptible to adverse effects (of climate change), where descriptions of stressors, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity define its character (see Adger

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Norman L. Miller, Katharine Hayhoe, Jiming Jin, and Maximilian Auffhammer

air conditioners. If our economies continue on a high-energy-consumption trajectory into the future, projected temperature increases over the coming century may further strain energy providers, resulting in electricity shortages and negative health and economic impacts. Clear and consistent policy is therefore needed to guide energy markets, suppliers, and consumers in the face of both developing economies and incipient warming caused by human-induced climate change. Here, we describe the details

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Henry J. F. Penn, S. Craig Gerlach, and Philip A. Loring

impact,” and emphasizing the nature of the hazard or crisis over local societal processes and trends ( Fazzino and Loring 2009 ; Oliver-Smith 2013 ). That is not to say that the temporal aspect of vulnerability has not been discussed; Ford and colleagues, for example, describe it thus: Climate-related conditions include magnitude, frequency, spatial dispersion, duration, speed of onset, timing, and temporal spacing of conditions. ... In Arctic communities, different species will be harvested in

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