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Yun-Young Lee and Robert X. Black

(NAM) connects variations in the stratospheric polar vortex strength to the meridional displacement of the midlatitude tropospheric jet stream, influencing regional climate and weather ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Wittman et al. 2005 ). Possible mechanisms for downward coupling include so-called downward control ( Black 2002 ; Haynes 2005 ; Haynes et al. 1991 ), indirect effects related to the alteration of planetary Rossby wave propagation within the troposphere ( Song and Robinson 2004 ), and

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David W. J. Thompson and Thomas Birner

–Palm cross sections for the troposphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 37 , 2600 – 2615 . Frierson , D. M. W. , 2006 : Robust increases in midlatitude static stability in simulations of global warming . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L24816 , doi:10.1029/2006GL027504 . Grise , K. M. , D. W. J. Thompson , and P. M. Forster , 2009 : On the role of radiative processes in stratosphere–troposphere coupling . J. Climate , 22 , 4154 – 4161 . Haynes , P. H. , M. E. Mclntyre , T. G. Shepherd , C. J

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Peter Hitchcock, Theodore G. Shepherd, and Gloria L. Manney

information is gained in the PJO perspective. Simplified model studies have indicated that longer time-scale variability in the stratosphere does correlate with stronger stratosphere–troposphere coupling ( Gerber and Polvani 2009 ). We therefore divide the weak vortex events into those events that correspond to PJO events and those that do not. Composites are presented in Fig. 13 . The different character of non-PJO and PJO events in the reanalysis composites is shown in Figs. 13a,b . The stratospheric

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Lon Hood, Semjon Schimanke, Thomas Spangehl, Sourabh Bal, and Ulrich Cubasch

( Meehl et al. 2008 ). In addition to forcing by small (<0.1%) intrinsic changes in TSI, perturbations of tropospheric circulation may also be produced via top-down stratospheric forcing ( Haigh et al. 2005 ; Simpson et al. 2009 ), which could in turn lead to nonlinear atmosphere–ocean coupling and feedbacks. Also, modification of planetary wave amplitudes associated with the troposphere–ocean response can produce dynamical feedbacks on the lower-stratospheric response ( HS12 ). Therefore, bottom

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Pu Lin, Qiang Fu, and Dennis L. Hartmann

waves also play an important role in shaping the ozone hole (e.g., Austin and Butchart 1992 ; Solomon 1999 ; Fusco and Salby 1999 ) and its recovery (e.g., Li et al. 2009 ; Oman et al. 2010 ) by affecting the polar vortex and BDC. Stratospheric planetary waves are mainly generated in the troposphere and propagate upward (e.g., Mechoso et al. 1985 ; Holton et al. 1995 ). Tropical sea surface temperature (SST) is an important thermal forcing for the stationary waves in the extratropics

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Blanca Ayarzagüena, Yvan J. Orsolini, Ulrike Langematz, Janna Abalichin, and Anne Kubin

and duration in the CMIP5 models . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 118 , 1179 – 1188 , doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50143 . Erlebach , P. , U. Langematz , and S. Pawson , 1996 : Simulations of stratospheric sudden warmings in the Berlin troposphere-stratosphere-mesosphere GCM . Ann. Geophys. , 14 , 443 – 463 , doi: 10.1007/s00585-996-0443-6 . Garfinkel , C. I. , D. L. Hartmann , and F. Sassi , 2010 : Tropospheric precursors of anomalous Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortices . J

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Pi-Huan Wang, M. P. McCormick, and W. P. Chu

forced planetary waves (wavenumber I and wavenumber 3) based on a linearized numerical model which takes into account the coupling between radiation, chemistry and dynamics. Their model results indicate that ozone- perturbations exhibit a phase shift of nearly 180- be tween the region of dynamical control and the region of photochemical control. This phase shift takes place mainly in a layer (the transition region) in which the effect of the dynamics on the ozone concentration is about equal to that

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