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J. E. Kay, C. Deser, A. Phillips, A. Mai, C. Hannay, G. Strand, J. M. Arblaster, S. C. Bates, G. Danabasoglu, J. Edwards, M. Holland, P. Kushner, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lawrence, K. Lindsay, A. Middleton, E. Munoz, R. Neale, K. Oleson, L. Polvani, and M. Vertenstein

). After initial condition memory is lost, which occurs within weeks in the atmosphere, each ensemble member evolves chaotically, affected by atmospheric circulation fluctuations characteristic of a random, stochastic process (e.g., Lorenz 1963 ; Deser et al. 2012b ). As we will show, internal climate variability has a substantial influence on climate trajectories, an influence that merits further investigation, comparison with available observations, and communication. Evaluating the realism of

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Carina Bringedal, Tor Eldevik, Øystein Skagseth, Michael A. Spall, and Svein Østerhus

1. Introduction The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the related poleward ocean heat transport are prominent features of the Nordic seas and Arctic Ocean ( Furevik et al. 2007 ). The Greenland–Scotland Ridge (GSR), with its relatively narrow and shallow straits separating the Atlantic Ocean from the Nordic seas, is accordingly an excellent location for observing changes associated with the North Atlantic Current, being the Gulf Stream’s northernmost limb ( Fig. 1 ). The

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Jing Sun, Mojib Latif, Wonsun Park, and Taewook Park

external forcing (e.g., Latif and Keenlyside 2011 ; Ting et al. 2014 ; Bellomo et al. 2018 ). Moreover, in many studies the AMO is regarded as a physical mode with well-defined spatial pattern and period and unique mechanism, which is not justified on the basis of the current literature. Climate models suggest that the low-frequency SST variability over the NA is partly related to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) (e.g., Delworth et al. 1993 ; Timmermann et al. 1998

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Rui Xin Huang and Joseph Pedlosky

simulate ENSO phenomenon under climate conditions different from that inferred from a climatological mean dataset. The equatorial thermocline is certainly not set by the local dynamics; instead, it is the result of water mass formation and transformation on the global scale. Given the global thermohaline circulation and its associated water mass formation and conversion, the thermocline structure at a given location is controlled by the wind-driven circulation in the upper ocean. In particular

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J. A. M. Green and A. Schmittner

1. Introduction The impact on the large-scale ocean circulation, and hence climate, by large inputs of freshwater or ice from collapsing ice sheets has been intensely studied in recent years [see Rahmstorf (2002) for a review]. The main climatic impact comes from the ability of the freshwater to hamper deep-water formation in the North Atlantic and thus reduce or even switch off the important Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; see, e.g., Rahmstorf 2003 ; Green et al. 2009

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Yign Noh, Gahyun Goh, Siegfried Raasch, and Micha Gryschka

clarify its dynamical process by analysis of LES data. In particular, investigation was focused on how turbulence at the thermocline is modified during the formation of a diurnal thermocline. It was also investigated how the result is affected by Langmuir circulation (LC), WB, radiation penetration, and the diurnal variation of the surface buoyancy flux. 2. Simulation For the simulation, we used the LES model for the ocean mixed layer developed by Noh et al. (2004) , in which both LC and WB are

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Zhengyu Liu and S. G. H. Philander

subtropical circulation from integrated transportfields. Section 4 focuses on the response of the equatorial circulation, particularly the EUC, to varioussubtropical and tropical wind forcing. Section 5 reportsthe response of equatorial thermocline to various windforcing. A summary and further discussion are givenin section 6. Some details about the spinup process ofthe subtropical-tropical temperature field will also begiven in the appendix. 2. The modes and the experiments a. The model The finite

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Yuchao Zhu, Rong-Hua Zhang, Delei Li, and Dake Chen

, whereas the TS bias is trivial in the NWTP despite the great TD bias there. Fig . 3. As in Figs. 2a–c , but for the thermocline strength (°C m −1 ). 4. The influences of the thermocline biases These thermocline biases can degrade the simulations of oceanic circulations in the tropical Pacific. The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) plays an important role in regulating the tropical Pacific climate ( Clement et al. 2005 ), but it is poorly simulated in many ocean and climate models ( Tseng et al

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Giulio Boccaletti, Ronald C. Pacanowski, S. George, H. Philander, and Alexey V. Fedorov

1. Introduction The thermocline is so remarkably shallow in the Tropics and subtropics that the average temperature of the water column, even in the western equatorial Pacific where surface temperatures are at a maximum, is barely above freezing. The oceanic circulation that maintains this thermal structure has two main components, a shallow wind-driven circulation and a deep thermohaline circulation. Traditionally, theoretical models of the thermocline are classified according to their focus

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Robert C. J. Wills, Kyle C. Armour, David S. Battisti, and Dennis L. Hartmann

), drought relief in the Sahel ( Gray 1990 ; Zhang and Delworth 2006 ), and a higher frequency of landfalling Atlantic hurricanes ( Gray 1990 ; Goldenberg et al. 2001 ; Zhang and Delworth 2006 ). Multiple physical mechanisms have been put forth to explain this variability. Most studies have focused on the role of internal variability in ocean circulation, principally the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; Delworth et al. 1993 ; Delworth and Mann 2000 ; Latif et al. 2004 ; Knight et

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