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Sergey K. Gulev and Lutz Hasse

in 1970. During the 1970s the percentage of reports with wave observations usually closely matches 60%, with the exception of high latitudes where this estimate is slightly lower. There is no indication of pronounced seasonal dependence of the number of wave observations. In the Tropics and subtropics their frequency is slightly higher in spring, and in high latitudes there is a weak maximum in autumn. In general, we can point out that the COADS collection provides the first look at a sufficient

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Sydney Levitus

flux in the Indian Ocean centered at about 7.5-N diningNorthern Hemisphere summer is responsible for a global Ekman heat flux distribution, with an annual cyclein the tropics that qualitatively resembles the results of Oort and Vonder Haar.1. Introduction The works of Vonder Haar and Oort (1973) andOort and Vonder Hoar (1976) have stimulated muchrecent interest in the subject of meridional heat fluxby the ocean and atmosphere. A global meridional heatflux from the tropics to the polar region is

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Aleksi Nummelin, Julius J. M. Busecke, Thomas W. N. Haine, and Ryan P. Abernathey

dependence and spatial distribution of κ . In sections 4a and 4b we discuss the MicroInverse-based estimates, which we then compare to theory in section 4c . In the following, subscripts distinguish between sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA)-based and idealized tracer simulation (MITgcm)-based diffusivities. a. Spatial structure Figure 2a shows that κ SSTA at 0.5° resolution peaks in the tropics ( κ SSTA ~ 2500 m 2 s −1 ) and around the boundary currents ( κ SSTA ~ 1500 m 2 s −1

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Peter J. Lamb and Andrew F. Bunker

threeparameters are presented as averages for 10- (5-) zones of the extratropics (tropics); the VZINMHTs arefor the zones' bounding latitude cirele~ The net surface heat gain is residuaily-eshmated from sea-air heat exchange calculations. The exLrntropicalNorth Atlantic is a net loser of heat to the atmosphere for the year as a whole- It experiences a very shortperiod (May-August) of surface heat uptake, during which the maximum rate is as h/gh as 110-130 W m-2,and a more lengthy surface heat loss, much of

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M. J. Harrison and R. W. Hallberg

potential energy of the mean state of the ocean via small-scale diapycnal overturns. Henyey et al. (1986 , hereafter HWF ) used Monte Carlo ray-tracing computations to derive an expression for the rate of dissipation resulting from wave–wave interactions as a function of the Coriolis parameter f and the ambient stratification. Their model predicts a dramatic reduction in the tropics. This is consistent with microstructure data. Assuming the thermal diffusivity is proportional to the inverse

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Giulio Boccaletti, Ronald C. Pacanowski, S. George, H. Philander, and Alexey V. Fedorov

1. Introduction The thermocline is so remarkably shallow in the Tropics and subtropics that the average temperature of the water column, even in the western equatorial Pacific where surface temperatures are at a maximum, is barely above freezing. The oceanic circulation that maintains this thermal structure has two main components, a shallow wind-driven circulation and a deep thermohaline circulation. Traditionally, theoretical models of the thermocline are classified according to their focus

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Warren B. White, Yi Chao, and Chang-Kou Tai

westward speed decreasing with latitude in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Pacific Ocean as expected of free oceanic Rossby waves, but with less range; that is, from 0.25 m s −1 in the Tropics to 0.04 m s −1 in the extratropics, as compared with magnitudes for free Rossby waves decreasing from 0.36 m s −1 in the Tropics to 0.02 m s −1 in the extratropics. This yields ratios with free Rossby wave speeds (i.e., C R ) ranging from 0.5 in the Tropics to 2.6 in the extratropics. In both

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Christopher S. Meinen

interannual variations in the meridional heat fluxes are occurring in the ocean. The three-dimensional pathways and mechanisms involved in these interannual variations in warm water exchange between the Tropics and the subtropics have not yet been fully explained nor has the meridional extent of the exchange been quantified. Some progress has been made toward determining the time-mean circulation pathways using widely scattered (temporally and spatially) CTD data as well as with satellite measurements (e

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Stefan Hastenrath

VOLUME10 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY FEBRUARY 1980Heat Budget of Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere~ STEFAN HASTENRATHDepartment of Meteorology. University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706(Manuscript received 14 March 1979, in final form 10 September 1979) ABSTRACT Heat budget estimates for the global tropics are derived from recent calculations of the oceanic heatbudget and satellite

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Julian P. McCreary Jr. and Peng Lu

flows back eastward to spread throughout the Tropics ( Tsuchiya and Talley 1996 ). The rest flows poleward along the western boundary of the basin and, although it loses its distinctive low-salinity character, it is detectable in tongues of relatively high oxygen that cross the North Pacific as far north as 45°N ( Reid and Mantyla 1978 ; Reid 1997 ; Wijffels et al. 1998 ). Finally, there is another distinctive water mass in the Tropics, associated with spreading at depths above 500 m of isohalines

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