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Michael S. Buban, Temple R. Lee, and C. Bruce Baker

dataset are relatively small compared to the observed USCRN data. To produce a daily gridded soil moisture product it would be instructive to see how the errors in PRISM compare to other components in the water budget (e.g., ET); however, we do not have ET data from the USCRN stations to compare the magnitude of the errors in this product. However, preliminary comparisons of measured USCRN soil moisture to a PRISM input/ALEXI output simple model shows promise. More analyses will be conducted going

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Helene B. Erlandsen, Ingjerd Haddeland, Lena M. Tallaksen, and Jørn Kristiansen

1. Introduction The lower surface boundary to the atmosphere moderates roughness, albedo, and emissivity, and can act as a water or heat reservoir, depending on its state. The surface can accordingly modify atmospheric stability, humidity, cloud cover, precipitation, and air temperature, and thus the local and regional surface energy and water balance, through complex interactions. International studies point to regions where the land surface has a high influence on the local weather and

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Changyan Zhou, Ping Zhao, and Junming Chen

regional water cycles ( Held and Soden 2006 ; Lorenz and DeWeaver 2007 ; Seager et al. 2010 ; Sohn and Park 2010 ; Immerzeel et al. 2010 ). Water vapor over the TP also significantly correlates with summer precipitation in eastern China ( Shi and Shi 2008 ). Therefore, it is urgent to study the TP water vapor budgets in recent decades. Many studies have investigated water vapor budgets over the TP (e.g., Luo and Yanai 1984 ; Simmonds et al. 1999 ; Xu et al. 2002 ; Ueda et al. 2003 ; Liang et

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F. Dominguez, H. Hu, and J. A. Martinez

algorithm to represent change in atmospheric moisture. These processes include time rate of change of moisture storage, advection in the horizontal and vertical direction (1D, 2D, 3D), diffusion, divergence of turbulent moisture flux, and change of phase. Note that our definition of complexity is not necessarily linked to computational cost, physical realism, or additional information provided by the model such as age of water. The first category includes “analytical” models that provide simple budget

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Ryann A. Wakefield, Jeffrey B. Basara, Jason C. Furtado, Bradley G. Illston, Craig. R. Ferguson, and Petra M. Klein

recommended product lifetime, even if no problems are detected ( McPherson et al. 2007 ). Observations from the mesonet have been extensively validated ( Scott et al. 2013 ) to ensure that all observations are of research quality. One limitation arises because of site placement within areas of uniform low-growing vegetation ( McPherson et al. 2007 ) as observations may not be representative of those over other land-cover types. 1) Mesonet soil moisture Fractional water index (FWI) is a normalized

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Ruping Mo, Melinda M. Brugman, Jason A. Milbrandt, James Goosen, Quanzhen Geng, Christopher Emond, Jonathan Bau, and Amin Erfani

organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the atmospheric water balance requirements and their implications in the orographic precipitation analysis. The physical geography of southern BC, data, and NWP systems used in this study are described in section 3 . The two AR-enhanced winter storms and the corresponding model predictions are analyzed in sections 4 and 5 , respectively. Concluding remarks are given in section 6 . 2. The atmospheric water balance and precipitation Heavy

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Carl Schmitt, Chih-Chieh-Jack Chen, Aaron Bansemer, Andrew Gettelman, Paul R. Field, and Chuntao Liu

1. Introduction The phase of clouds and precipitation, whether it be liquid and/or ice, has far-reaching implications for Earth’s energy budget, convective instability, and surface water supply. Major recent advances in understanding the energy budget, and the occurrence of the ice phase, have been provided by satellite data and globally gridded reanalyses (e.g., Trenberth et al. 2001 ; Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a , b ; Mülmenstädt et al. 2015 ). It is well known that the ice phase has a

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Nana Liu, Chuntao Liu, and Thomas Lavigne

Abstract

A 16-yr (1998–2013) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) database is used to examine the impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the characteristics of precipitation systems in the tropics and subtropics. Noticeable differences in the fractions of deep systems (20-dBZ radar echo tops greater than 10 km) and mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) (an area greater than 2000 km2) between different phases of ENSO are found over specific regions, including the central Pacific (CPACI), the western Maritime Continent (WMC), the eastern Maritime Continent (EMC), Gulf of Mexico (GM), Argentina (ARGEN), and Australia (AUS). The coefficients of determination R 2 between the multivariate ENSO index (MEI) and the population fractions of deep convection and MCSs are analyzed seasonally over these regions. The responses from these precipitation systems to ENSO are found to be more pronounced in the winter half-year than in the summer half-year. An increase of rainfall during El Niño periods over the CPACI, GM, and ARGEN is found to be associated with more precipitation events and a higher fraction of intense, deep, and large precipitation systems. AUS has fewer precipitation events and a higher fraction of shallow and small precipitation systems during El Niño conditions. Both EMC and WMC have a higher fraction of MCSs during La Niña than El Niño conditions. The EMC observes a higher fraction of deep convection during La Niña conditions. However, the WMC has a higher fraction of deep convection during El Niño conditions, possibly related to the effect of the Indian Ocean dipole.

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Hamish D. Pritchard, Daniel Farinotti, and Steven Colwell

) of both falling and accumulated snow are poorly observed, particularly in mountains. Measurements of falling and accumulated snow are used to develop, test, and drive weather, climate, and hydrology models; hence, the lack of observations constitutes a critical observational gap in the terrestrial water budget ( McCrary et al. 2017 ; Yao et al. 2018 ; Xu et al. 2019 ; Yoon et al. 2019 ). This gap is the most important unsolved problem in snow hydrology ( Dozier et al. 2016 ), and the ultimate

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Clara Draper and Graham Mills

presented here is mostly confined to the area-averaged water balance over the basin, and is in part a scoping study for the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Murray–Darling Basin Regional Hydroclimate Project (RHP) water budget study. The GEWEX program is aimed at better understanding the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes of the atmosphere, with the ultimate goal of predicting global and regional climate change. Under the auspices of GEWEX the atmospheric water balances over many

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