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John Austin, John Wilson, Feng Li, and Holger Vömel

eruptions as a cause of increased stratospheric water vapor. J. Climate , 16 , 3525 – 3534 . Lean , J. , J. Beer , and R. S. Bradley , 1995 : Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 22 , 3195 – 3198 . Le Texier , H. , S. Solomon , and R. R. Garcia , 1988 : The role of molecular hydrogen and methane oxidation in the water vapour budget of the stratosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 114 , 281 – 295 . Lin , S

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Le Van Thien, William A. Gallus Jr., Mark A. Olsen, and Nathaniel Livesey

1. Introduction Satellites have become an important source of atmospheric data in recent decades. They have been particularly useful in providing information in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, where measurements from other instruments are rare (e.g., Hegglin et al. 2008 ). Although the amount of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is small, water vapor in this region is important to the earth’s climate system. In addition to its role as one of the most

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Amato T. Evan, Cyrille Flamant, Christophe Lavaysse, Cécile Kocha, and Azzedine Saci

, model name expansions are provided in a searchable list at http://www.ametsoc.org/PubsAcronymList , under the heading “Climatic, meteorological, oceanographic, and other” for the models discussed. e. Radiative transfer model Here we conduct surface radiative flux calculations using the Streamer radiative transfer model ( Key and Schweiger 1998 ) in order to estimate the sensitivity of surface net radiative fluxes to changes in atmospheric water vapor. Streamer is a radiative transfer model that can

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J. P. Evans and R. B. Smith

parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Being a dominantly arid area, relatively little precipitation recycling occurs over the land and the surrounding water bodies are major contributors to atmospheric water vapor. To the northwest is the Black Sea, to the northeast is the Caspian Sea, to the west is the Mediterranean, and to the south is the Persian Gulf. While it has been generally accepted that the area is dominated by storm systems that move in from the Mediterranean Sea, earlier modeling work

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Matthias Grzeschik, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, Dirk Engelbart, Ulla Wandinger, Ina Mattis, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Matthias Tesche, and Andrea Riede

), as well as cloud and precipitation microphysics ( Doms et al. 2002 ; Zängl 2004a , b ). Regardless of these challenges, a major sensitivity remains to the accuracy of initial fields and boundaries by global forecasts as well as on their mesoscale variability ( Richard et al. 2003 ; Faccani and Ferretti 2005 ). In various publications it was demonstrated that the representation of mesoscale dynamics and water vapor are particularly crucial (e.g., Crook 1996 ; Ducrocq et al. 2000 ). Therefore

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Zhengzhao Luo, Dieter Kley, Richard H. Johnson, and Herman Smit

the water vapor band brightness temperatures from NOAA operational satellites. J. Climate , 6 , 1282 – 1300 . Zhang , C. , B. E. Mapes , and B. J. Soden , 2003 : Bimodality in tropical water vapour. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 129 , 2847 – 2866 . APPENDIX MOZAIC Program and Observations Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC; see http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr/web/ ) is a project that was funded by the Commission of the European Union, for the

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Hui Su, Jonathan H. Jiang, Xiaohong Liu, Joyce E. Penner, William G. Read, Steven Massie, Mark R. Schoeberl, Peter Colarco, Nathaniel J. Livesey, and Michelle L. Santee

1. Introduction Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas that acts to amplify surface warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (e.g., CO 2 ). In the stratosphere, water vapor also plays a major role in ozone chemistry and serves as a reliable dynamical tracer because of its long lifetime. The mechanisms that control the amount of stratospheric water vapor are not fully understood (e.g., Solomon et al. 2010 ). The current understanding is that the entry value of water vapor mixing ratio

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Eui-Seok Chung, Brian J. Soden, and Viju O. John

1. Introduction Upper-tropospheric water vapor accounts for a tiny fraction of the total water vapor mass due to the exponential decrease of saturation water vapor pressure with altitudes. However, because the trapping of terrestrial longwave radiation is proportional to the logarithm of water vapor concentration ( Held and Soden 2000 ), the small amounts of water vapor in the upper and midtroposphere can exert significant radiative impacts ( Held and Soden 2000 ; Allan et al. 2003 ; Sherwood

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F. Martin Ralph and Thomas J. Galarneau Jr.

New Mexico mostly occurred during the summer monsoon season ( Ralph et al. 2014 ). Despite the large body of published work on the North American monsoon, gaps remain in understanding, observations, weather predictions, and climate projections, particularly as it pertains to the transport of water vapor to the monsoon region. Onset of the North American monsoon typically occurs as the continental anticyclone is established over the southwestern United States (e.g., Galarneau et al. 2008

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Daniel T. Lindsey, Louie Grasso, John F. Dostalek, and Jochen Kerkmann

1. Introduction Low-level water vapor plays a significant role in deep convection and other meteorological phenomena (e.g., Moller 2001 ). Starting in the 1970s, many techniques have been developed to better characterize vertical profiles of moisture using remotely sensed data from satellites. Among the simplest and most fundamental methods involves satellite radiance observations at spectral bands near 11 and 12 μ m. Both bands are considered to be in an atmospheric window, meaning that

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