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Tomoe Nasuno, Hirofumi Tomita, Shinichi Iga, Hiroaki Miura, and Masaki Satoh

wave simply reversed sign between the two free-atmospheric layers. This is different from the 40 000-km mode, in which the phase relationship between the pressure gradient force and the zonal velocity differed between the upper and lower troposphere ( Figs. 5c , 5d and 7a ). More importantly, the effect of convection, which does not necessarily match the wave structure, was significant along the equator in the 40 000-km mode. The meridional pressure gradient around the equator was not balanced

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Tingting Gong, Steven Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

; Screen and Simmonds 2010a ; Serreze et al. 2012 ; Ghatak and Miller 2013 ), although these processes are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The latest climate models still underestimate the rate of Arctic sea ice melting ( Stroeve et al. 2012b ) and the Arctic SAT increase ( Koenigk et al. 2013 ), indicating that an important process is either missing or misrepresented by most models. Here, we present evidence that an increase in the downward infrared radiation (IR) associated with remote wave

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Paul E. Roundy

depends on a dynamic trigger, which, they argued, is likely to be either circumnavigating upper-tropospheric waves arriving from the west or waves moving into the region from the extratropics. They performed model experiments to attempt to assess which of these potential triggers is most important. Ray and Li (2013) performed a similar set of global climate model experiments that yielded similar conclusions and they highlight some caveats of the modeling approach that would apply to both their own

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David C. Fritts

1936 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME39Shear Excitation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves DAVID C. FRITTS~Physical Dynamics, Inc., Bellevue, 8z.d(Manuscript received 2 November 1981, in final form 3 May 1982)ABSTRACT Unstable velocity shears are a common source of vertically propagating gravity waves in the atmosphere.However, the growth rates of unstable modes predicted by linear theory cannot

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Lawrence C. Gloeckler and Paul E. Roundy

and ER waves, we assess feedbacks between the tropics and extratropics, with the MJO and ER waves both forcing and being forced by the extratropical circulation. 2. Data and methodology a. Data and compositing technique The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) interpolated outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data ( Liebmann and Smith 1996 ) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis 300-hPa geopotential

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Stanley David Gedzelman and William L. Donn

JUNE 1979 STANLEY DAVID GEDZELMAN AND WILLIAM L. DONN 667Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Coastal Cyclones~ STANLEY DAVID GEDZELMANDepartment of Earth and Planetary Sciences, City College of New York, New York, N Y 10031 andLamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 WILLIAM L. DONNLamont-Doherty Geological

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V. E. Kousky and J. P. Koermer

OCTObeR1974 V. E. KOUSKY AND J. P. KOERMER 1777The Nonlinear Behavior of Atmospheric Kelvin Waves V. E. Korrsx- AND J. P.Dept. of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112(Manuscript received 18 September 1973, in revised form 29 May 1974)ABSTRACT The atmospheric Kelvin wave is modeled with nonlinear terms included. Forcing from below leads toa Kelvin wave similar to that observed. The

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Ping Huang and Ronghui Huang

of CCEW activity–IOD or CCEW activity–local SST is found in the western and northern Indian Ocean, known as the Indian monsoon region. The interaction of CCEWs and atmospheric internal dynamic factors, such as the Indian monsoon, probably dominate the variability of CCEW activity over the western and northern Indian Ocean. For example, the propagation of Rossby waves accompanies both “break” and “active” phases of the Indian monsoon ( Lau and Peng 1987 ). For the Atlantic region, another active

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Yue Ying and Fuqing Zhang

and Crum 1995 ), mixed-Rossby–gravity (MRG) waves ( Dickinson and Molinari 2002 ), and inertia–gravity (IG) waves ( Haertel and Kiladis 2004 ). Skillful modeling of these multiscale tropical weather systems is an important and challenging task for global numerical weather prediction. Lorenz (1963) first discovered that the atmospheric flow can be intrinsically unpredictable because of its chaotic nature even with near-perfect model and initial/boundary condition. Moist convective processes are

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Xun Zhu, Jeng-Hwa Yee, William H. Swartz, Elsayed R. Talaat, and Lawrence Coy

hand, the momentum and energy sources produced by subgrid-scale motions have to be parameterized. For middle atmospheric modeling studies, the subgrid-scale motions can be most effectively represented by gravity waves because of their ability to transport momentum and energy over a large spatial distance. Generated mainly in the troposphere by mechanisms such as flow over topography (e.g., Nappo 2002 ; Teixeira et al. 2004 ), convection (e.g., Alexander et al. 1995 ), shear instability (e

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