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Hendrik L. Tolman, Jose-Henrique G. M. Alves, and Yung Y. Chao

1. Introduction Hurricane Isabel made landfall on the east coast of the United States near Cape Hatteras on 18 September 2003 (see Fig. 1 ). Due to the size and intensity of Isabel, extreme wave conditions were observed and predicted along the coast. Significant wave heights greater than 10 m were observed about 250 nm offshore at National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys 41001 and 41002, which were located on either side of the corridor of predicted maximum wave heights. NDBC buoy 41025, located

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Hyun-Ju Lee, Woo-Seop Lee, Jong Ahn Chun, and Hwa Woon Lee

and Tebaldi 2004 ; Oliver et al. 2018 ). Many studies have analyzed the mechanism of heat waves, which bring both the risk of heat-related health problems and economic costs ( Guirguis et al. 2014 ; Teng et al. 2013 ). Most extreme temperature events are associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. In eastern North America, Europe, and western Asia surface temperatures have been substantially raised by regional circulation patterns that are associated with atmospheric blocking

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N. L. Uhlenbrock, K. M. Bedka, W. F. Feltz, and S. A. Ackerman

convective storms ( Lane et al. 2003 ). Clear-air turbulence events are associated with a far more diverse set of atmospheric conditions: vertical wind shear near the upper-tropospheric jet stream ( Endlich 1964 ), gravity waves along upper-tropospheric frontal zones ( Koch et al. 2005 ) and above convective storms ( Lane et al. 2003 ), and topographically induced (i.e., mountain) wave and rotor phenomena ( Reiter and Foltz 1967 ; Clark and Gall 1982 ; Clark et al. 2000 ; Doyle and Durran 2002

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R. Padilla-Hernández, W. Perrie, B. Toulany, and P. C. Smith

results from atmospheric stratification, which necessitates a retuning of the model by defining an “effective” wind, as well as an additional correction for the impact of stability on wave growth. An alternate combination corresponds to WAM cycle 3 physics (hereafter denoted WAMC3 physics), in which S in and S ds are based on WAMDI Group (1988) , Snyder et al. (1981) , and Komen et al. (1984 , 1994 ). Quadruplet nonlinear interactions, S nl , are simulated by DIA, and the bottom dissipation

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Mukul Tewari, D. R. Chakraborty, Jose Marengo, Pedro L. Silva Dias, and P. Satyamurty

interest to the agricultural community. The theme of this paper is to present four interconnected areas that are relevant to the heavy frost over southeastern Brazil. We first take nine examples of recent frosts and show that the large-amplitude 500-hPa trough over Brazil had very interesting antecedents. We show that these antecedents are composed of wave trains exhibiting downstream amplification. These wave trains arrive over South America all the way from across the Pacific Ocean. Such wave trains

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Allan W. MacAfee and Peter J. Bowyer

trajectories in Fig. 14a , ending just north of 40°N, arrived near 1700 UTC 28 September 2003, comparable to the 12-m contour on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Wave Watch III model–North Atlantic Hurricane model (NWW3–NAH) hindcast for 1800 UTC 28 September 2003 ( Fig. 14b ). Although the 17-m TFW directed toward buoy 44258 is not the highest, its direction is important because it lines up more directly with the orientation of the Halifax

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Steven M. Lazarus, Samuel T. Wilson, Michael E. Splitt, and Gary A. Zarillo

spuriously large wind stress in the wave growth parameterization ( Tolman et al. 2005 ). Conversely, large-scale atmospheric models tend to poorly resolve TC winds (e.g., Bengtsson et al. 2007 ). This combination can lead to compensating errors, producing wave heights close to those observed despite being forced with wind fields that underestimate the true TC intensity. This type of behavior in models is well known and not limited to wave growth issues, as it is problematic with parameterizations in

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Teruhisa Shimada, Osamu Isoguchi, and Hiroshi Kawamura

, marine security, and marine disaster prevention. Moreover, it is demonstrated that waves can play a key role in improving coupled atmospheric and circulation models (e.g., Powers and Stoelinga 2000 ; Bao et al. 2000 ; Ardhuin et al. 2005 ). The subject of this study will serve as a stepping stone in the process of improving coupled air–sea mesoscale models. We give brief data descriptions in the following section. In section 3 , we present numerical model descriptions and their simulation

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Anthony Wimmers, Sarah Griffin, Jordan Gerth, Scott Bachmeier, and Scott Lindstrom

satellite observations. Many NWP models also artificially dampen gravity waves for numerical stability. Most importantly, rapid convection is often poorly captured in near–real time by NWP models and can lead to significant aviation hazards in the surrounding area, whereas geostationary satellite imagery is very well suited to viewing these phenomena. There are several causes of atmospheric disturbances that propagate through the atmosphere, often through gravity waves, that can lead to moderate or

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Lars-Anders Breivik and Magnar Reistad

DNMI it isused operationally in the atmospheric analysis-forecastmodel system (Gronfis and Midtbe 1987). We havedeveloped a simplified version for analysis of SWHfrom the wave model. The simplification is due to thefact that we are analyzing only one parameter at onlyone level. The basic idea of MSC is the same as for the socalled statistical interpolation (Hollingsworth 1987),which is commonly used for data analysis in atmospheric models at a number of meteorological centers.The analysis starts

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