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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Randal Koster, Yoo-Geun Ham, and Max Suarez

Plains (33°–50°N, 108°–85°W) during 2012. Values have a 10-day running mean applied. In summary, the timing of the impacts of the ocean basins on U.S. temperature anomalies is similar in the two years. We have already seen ( Fig. 7 ) that the cold season response to SST is linked to large-scale changes in the stationary waves, with the response to the Pacific associated with a PNA-like response and the response to the Atlantic resembling a NAO-like structure. During the summer the warming and drying

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Vincent Häfliger, Eric Martin, Aaron Boone, Florence Habets, Cédric H. David, Pierre-A. Garambois, Hélène Roux, Sophie Ricci, Lucie Berthon, Anthony Thévenin, and Sylvain Biancamaria

1. Introduction Remote sensing from spaceborne platforms is increasingly used for the monitoring of components of the hydrological cycle, including river discharge ( Santos da Silva et al. 2010 ). The surface soil moisture can be observed by the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellites ( Pierdicca et al. 2013 ; Kerr et al. 2010 ; Flores et al. 2012 ). The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

or southern Plains inducing increases in positive precipitation and soil moisture. Fig . 12. As in Fig. 11 , but for three drought terminations in (top) JFM 1990, (middle) OND 2000, and (bottom) JAS 2006. Figure 13 then shows the larger-scale atmosphere–ocean context of the 6 DO&T events. While we previously noted that the onsets occurred when the tropical Pacific was cool, only in OND 2010 were the SST anomalies strong and indicating a La Niña event. The wave train has some similarity, but

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Jason P. Giovannettone and Ana P. Barros

.g., from satellites such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series, and others] that make it possible to monitor precipitation processes in regions of complex terrain, such as the Western Cordillera of North America, where ground-based data are scarce because of the remoteness and limited access to these locations. Although the measurement and retrieval uncertainty of

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Victoria L. Sanderson, Chris Kidd, and Glenn R. McGregor

oceanic afternoon maximum is a consequence of surface–cloud–radiation interactions ( Chen and Houze 1997 ) and changes in the life cycle of rainfall systems ( Sui et al. 1997 ). Continental influences modulate the oceanic diurnal cycle through land breezes and gravity waves leading to a more pronounced diurnal cycle ( Liberti et al. 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ). 3. Data, sampling, and methodology a. Data and algorithm description The main data source for the study is the TRMM satellite, which has

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

( Fig. 7b ). Structural differences in the simulated CFADs between land and ocean are less coherent in the vertical direction, unlike those from the TRMM PR, which show clear, coherent patterns through solid, mixed, and liquid-phase precipitation. The results are also interesting because the MMF modeling setup does not account for the thermal patch effect. Robinson et al. (2011) concluded that mesoscale wave dynamics due to the thermal patch effect is the primary mechanism for continental

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Oreste Reale and Paul Dirmeyer

1. Introduction The interannual variability of precipitation is the outcome of different processes: the internal dynamics of the atmosphere and the variability of boundary forcings. The boundary forcing considered here is evaporation from the ocean and the land. The purpose of this two-part study is to investigate the impact of marine and terrestrial evaporation variabilities on interannual precipitation variability. A set of general circulation model (GCM) experiments, in which evaporation

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Michael L. Kaplan, Christopher S. Adaniya, Phillip J. Marzette, K. C. King, S. Jeffrey Underwood, and John M. Lewis

depicts the multiday polar jet and precipitable water analyses structure over the North Pacific Ocean starting at the time of the heavy rainfall sounding location at REV and working backward for both case studies. Figure 6 depicts the midtropospheric cold pools from a northern Pacific perspective that support each cyclone-scale wave for both case studies over the same time period as Fig. 5 . The cyclone-scale waves (wavelengths ∼2500 km) are defined by a polar jet maximum accompanying a wind shift

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William K. M. Lau and Kyu-Myong Kim

1. Introduction During late July and early August 2010, Pakistan suffered a cluster of torrential rain events, causing the worst flooding in 100 years. According to the reports of the World Meteorological Organization ( WMO 2011 ), 1700 people perished and 1.8 million homes were lost, rendering 20 million people homeless, with an economic loss estimated to be more than $40 billion (U.S. dollars). At about the same time, western Russia was stricken by a record heat wave and a prolonged drought

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Lin Zhao, S.-Y. Simon Wang, and Jonathan Meyer

of the Indian summer monsoon ( Ding and Wang 2007 ), eastern Tibetan Plateau precipitation ( Hu et al. 2016 ), and northwest China summer precipitation ( Chen and Huang 2012 ). Specifically, Chen and Huang (2012) suggested that tropical heating anomalies located over the north Indian Ocean and equatorial central Pacific, Indonesia, and tropical Atlantic are potential forcing sources of those midlatitude Rossby wave patterns across Eurasia and the Tibetan Plateau. Hawkins and Sutton (2009

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