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Michael J. Manton and Loredana Warren

operative in the Lake Almanor cloud-seeding program . J. Appl. Meteor. , 32 , 1726 – 1732 . Dennis , A. S. , 1980 : Weather Modification by Cloud Seeding . Academic, 275 pp . Everitt , B. S. , and T. Hothorn , 2006 : A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using R . Chapman and Hall, 269 pp . Huggins , A. W. , S. L. Kenyon , L. Warren , A. D. Peace , S. P. Bilish , and M. J. Manton , 2008 : The Snowy Precipitation Enhancement Research Project: A description and preliminary

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Louis J. Battan

On the basis of a review of abstracts of articles published mostly since 1969, a summary has been prepared of Soviet research in weather modification. A wide spectrum of problems is being studied. Hail suppression and precipitation stimulation still are major areas of activity in the USSR. In recent years, Soviet scientists have begun research on the lightning suppression, the dissipation of convective clouds, and the use of heat for the dissipation of warm fog and stratus. The articles surveyed show little evidence that Soviet scientists, unlike their American counterparts, are convinced of the value of randomized experiments in the evaluation of cloud-seeding hypotheses. There is no evidence in this literature that the modification of large scale weather phenomena is being actively investigated in the Soviet Union.

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Archie M. Kahan

The activities which are grouped together as “weather modification” cover a wide range and have important differences as well as similarities. Many governmental agencies in pursuing long standing interests in the relation of the atmosphere to their missions, have become involved in individual weather modification programs which are similar enough to prompt the assumption that their efforts are empire building, duplicative and competitive. Study of the details of what is going on provides little evidence that serious empire building or duplicative efforts are the rule.

Cooperation and coordination exist between Federal agencies but should be improved particularly in the areas of planning for the future and attracting the participation of the additional skilled people.

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S. A. Changnon, F. A. Huff, and C. F. Hsu

Use of weather modification by farm groups, state agencies, and power companies to perform operational projects continues to expand. Seven percent of the United States experienced cloud seeding during 1977. The major stakeholders—those paying, those performing the seeding, and the scientific community—have all converged on the need to evaluate operational projects. Major assessments of the national situation have recommended that carefully conducted operational projects can be a source of useful scientific information if designed, operated, and evaluated properly. A project has been launched to develop statistical-physical evaluation techniques for operational projects.

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B. Vonnegut

742 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLU~,E$Desirable Requirement for Scientific Papers Describing Weather Modification Experiments B. VONNEOUTArthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. 21 February 1966 In a recent letter (1966) I criticized the JovP.~AL o~A~em~D M~T~OaOLOa- for having published a paperdealing with the results of a weather modification experiment on the grounds that the

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October 1970ON THE POSSIBILITY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CONTRAILS WALLACE B. MURCRAYGeophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Colleye, AlaskaABSTRACTThe possible effect of contrails in modifying the weather is reconsidered in the light of information obtained fromground-level contrails in Alaska. It appears likely that inadvertent cloud seeding by jet aircraft may be of the sameorder of magnitude as that attained in commercial cloud seeding operations. Further investigation

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F. A. Huff

Organization, 1965: Guide to meteorological instrument and observing practices. Second ed., lk'o. 8, TP. 3, Geneva, p. IX 13.Area-Depth Curves--A Useful Tool in Weather Modification Experiments F. A. H~r~Illinois State Water Suroey, Urbana22 April 1968 and 12 June 19681. Introduction In evaluating the results of cloud seeding on surfacerainfall, statistical evaluations are normally based uponcomparisons of point or areal mean rainfall in targetand control areas. This provides a measurement of

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Sarah A. Tessendorf, Kyoko Ikeda, Courtney Weeks, Roy Rasmussen, Jamie Wolff, and Lulin Xue

presence of supercooled liquid water (SLW) in these regions ( Auer and Veal 1970 ; Dirks 1973 ; Politovich and Vali 1983 ), as well as their importance for producing streamflow into three major river basins in the state: the Green, Wind–Bighorn, and North Platte Rivers. The results of this initial feasibility study ( Weather Modification Inc. 2005 ) led to the state funding what would eventually be a 10-yr program to test the potential of cloud seeding in these regions. The program, known as the

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Edwin L. Crow

AUGUST 1982EDWIN L. CROW1063Double Cumulative and Lorenz Curves in Weather Modification EDWIN L. CROWNational Center for Atmospheric Research,~ Boulder, CO 80307(Manuscript received 11 November 1981, in final form 30 April 1982)ABSTRACT A graphical presentation of precipitation data has been used for some years in which the cumulativepercentage of the total mass falling on various days of a sample of precipitation days, ordered from thelargest to the smallest mass, is plotted

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Tsing-Chang Chen, Shih-Yu Wang, and Ming-Cheng Yen

. The eastern Asian climate/weather system is characterized by the winter northeast monsoon and the summer southwest monsoon. Because of the alternation of these two monsoons, the dry season of northern Taiwan occurs during summer. Despite this dry season, the maximum rainfall in the Taipei basin happens in summer. This unusually wet summer microclimate of the Taipei basin in northern Taiwan is primarily caused by afternoon/evening thunderstorm activity (shown later). Since the Vietnam War in the

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